The tympanic membrane (TM) is a thin tissue able to efﬁciently collect and transmit sound vibrations across the middle ear thanks to the particular orientation of its collagen ﬁbers, radiate on one side and circular on the opposite side. Through the combination of advanced scaffolds and autologous cells, tissue engineering (TE) could offer valuable alternatives to autografting in major TMlesions. In this study, a multiscale approach based on electrospinning (ES) and additive manufacturing (AM) was investigated to fabricate scaffolds, based on FDA approved copolymers, resembling the anatomic features and collagen ﬁber arrangement of the human TM. A single scale TMscaffold was manufactured using a custom-made collector designed to confer a radial macro-arrangement to poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) electrospun ﬁbers during their deposition. Dual and triple scale scaffolds were fabricated combining conventional ES with AMto produce poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly (butylene terephthalate) block copolymer scaffolds with anatomic-like architecture. The processing parameters were optimized for each manufacturing method and copolymer. TMscaffolds were cultured in vitro with human mesenchymal stromal cells, which were viable, metabolically active and organized following the anisotropic character of the scaffolds. The highest viability, cell density and protein content were detected in dual and triple scale scaffolds. Our ﬁndings showed that these biomimetic micro-patterned substrates enabled cell disposal along architectural directions, thus appearing as promising substrates for developing functional TMreplacements via TE.
|Autori:||C. Mota; S. Danti; D. D’Alessandro; L. Trombi; C. Ricci; D. Puppi; D. Dinucci; M. Milazzo; C. Stefanini; F. Chiellini; L. Moroni; S. Berrettini.|
|Titolo:||Multiscale fabrication of biomimetic scaffolds for tympanic membrane tissue engineering|
|Anno del prodotto:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1088/1758-5090/7/2/025005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|