Histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein (HPRG), or histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), is a serum protein that is synthesized in the liver and is actively internalised by different cells, including skeletal muscle. The multidomain arrangement of HPRG comprises two modules at the N-terminus that are homologous to cystatin but void of cysteine proteinase inhibitor function, and a second half consisting of a histidine-proline-rich region (HPRR) located between two proline-rich regions (PRR1 and PRR2), and a C-terminus domain. HPRG has been reported to bind various ligands and to modulate angiogenesis via the histidine residues of the HPRR. However, the secondary structure prediction of the HPRR reveals that more than 98% is disordered and the structural basis of the hypothesized functions remains unclear. Comparison of the PRR1 of several mammalian species indicates the presence of a conserved binding site that might coordinate the Zn(2+) ion with an amino acid arrangement compatible with the cysteine-containing site that has been identified experimentally for rabbit HPRG. This observation provides a structural basis to the function of HPRG as an intracellular zinc chaperone which has been suggested by the involvement of the protein in the maintenance of the quaternary structure of skeletal muscle AMP deaminase (AMPD). During Anthropoidea evolution, a change of the primary structure of the PRR1 Zn(2+) binding site took place, giving rise to the sequence M-S-C-S/L-S/R-C that resembles the MxCxxC motif characteristic of metal transporters and metallochaperones.
|Autori:||Ronca, Francesca; Raggi, Antonio|
|Titolo:||Structure-function relationships in mammalian histidine-proline-rich glycoprotein|
|Anno del prodotto:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.biochi.2015.09.024|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|