Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, is a disorder of autoimmune origin, the pathogenic mechanisms of which are still incompletely understood. Although GO is severe in only 3-5% of affected individuals, quality of life is severely impaired even in patients with mild GO. Management of severe GO can be either medical or surgical (orbital decompression, eye muscle or lid surgery). Medical management relies on the use of high-dose systemic glucocorticoids or orbital radiotherapy, either alone or in combination. Studies carried out in the last 5 yr have shown that glucocorticoids are more effective through the i.v. route than through the oral route. However, particular attention should be paid to possible liver toxicity of i.v. glucocorticoids. Recent randomized clinical trials have, with one exception, confirmed that orbital radiotherapy is an effective and safe therapeutic procedure for GO. At variance with previous encouraging data, recent randomized clinical trials have shown that currently available SS analogs are not very effective in the management of GO. Antioxidants might have a role, at least in mild forms of GO. Particular attention should be paid to correction of risk factors (cigarette smoking, thyroid dysfunction, radioiodine therapy) involved in GO progression.
|Autori:||Bartalena, L; Marcocci, Claudio; Tanda, M. L; Piantanida, E; Lai, A; Marino', Michele; Pinchera, Aldo|
|Titolo:||An update on medical management of Graves' ophthalmopathy|
|Anno del prodotto:||2005|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|