BACKGROUND: Migraine, anxiety and depression often coexist. A "neurolimbic" model of migraine has been recently proposed accounting for a dynamic influence of pain, mood and anxiety on the migraine disease. However, very few data exist concerning clinical migraine features in patients reporting anxiety-depression symptoms. OBJECTIVE: Aim of our study was to test differences in clinical migraine features between migraineurs with anxiety-depression symptoms and migraineurs without ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 200 consecutive migraineurs. Other primary headaches comorbidity and migraine prophylaxis were exclusion criteria. Each patient was interviewed following a structured questionnaire including general features about migraine, triggers, allodynia. Anxiety and depression symptoms were evaluated in each patient by two brief self-reported scales: the generalized anxiety disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7) and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item scale (PHQ-9). A cut-off of 5 in both the GAD-7 and the PHQ-9 was considered positive for the presence of anxiety-depressive symptoms. RESULTS: One hundred and one patients (51.5%) had anxiety-depression symptoms (GAD-7 and PHQ-9 ≥ 5). They reported a more headaches/month (p = 0.004), higher number of triggers (p < 0.001), and were more allodynic (p = 0.005). In a binary logistic regression model triggers and allodynia made a unique statistical contribution on reporting anxiety-depression symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the presence of anxiety-depression symptoms affects migraine clinical presentation. They are associated with enhanced migraine triggers susceptibility, more ictal allodynic symptoms as well as more headaches/month. An altered sensation in migraineurs with anxiety-depression symptoms could be a result of a lower pain threshold and an increased cortical excitability in a broader context of a neurolimbic dysfunction.
|Autori:||Baldacci, Filippo; Lucchesi, Cinzia; Cafalli, Martina; Poletti, Michele; Ulivi, Martina; Vedovello, Marcella; Giuntini, Martina; Mazzucchi, Sonia; Del Prete, Eleonora; Vergallo, Andrea; Nuti, Angelo; Gori, Sara|
|Titolo:||Migraine features in migraineurs with and without anxiety-depression symptoms: A hospital-based study|
|Anno del prodotto:||2015|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.clineuro.2015.02.017|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|