Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) are the enzymatic keys for the activation of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade and the subsequent synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostanoids (prostaglandins and tromboxanes). Prostanoids play critical roles in the initiation and modulation of inflammation and their levels have been reported increased in several neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we aimed to determine whether brain expression PLA(2) enzymes and the terminal prostagland in levels are changed during cuprizone-induced demyelination and in the subsequent remyelination phase. Mice were given the neurotoxicant cuprizone through the diet for six weeks to induce brain demyelination. Then, cuprizone was withdrawn and mice were returned to a normal diet for 6 weeks to allow spontaneous remyelination. We found that after 4-6 weeks of cuprizone, sPLA(2)(V) and cPLA(2), but not iPLA(2)(VI), gene expression was upregulated in the cortex, concomitant with an increase in the expression of astrocyte and microglia markers. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression was consistently upregulated during all the demyelination period, whereas COX-1 sporadically increased only at week 5 of cuprizone exposure. However, we found that at the protein level only sPLA(2)(V) and COX-1 were elevated during demyelination, with COX-1 selectively expressed by activated and infiltrated microglia/macrophages and astrocytes. Levels of PGE(2), PGD(2), PGI(2) and TXB(2) were also increased during demyelination. During remyelination, none of the PLA(2) isoforms was significantly changed, whereas COX-1 and -2 were sporadically upregulated only at the gene expression level. PGE(2), PGI(2) and PGD(2) levels returned to normal, whereas TXB(2) was still upregulated after 3 weeks of cuprizone withdrawal. Our study characterizes for the first time time-dependent changes in the AA metabolic pathway during cuprizone-induced demyelination and the subsequent remyelination and suggests that sPLA(2)(V) is the major isoform contributing to AA release.

Time-dependent changes in the brain arachidonic acid cascade during cuprizone-induced demyelination and remyelination

PALUMBO, SARA;
2011

Abstract

Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) are the enzymatic keys for the activation of the arachidonic acid (AA) cascade and the subsequent synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostanoids (prostaglandins and tromboxanes). Prostanoids play critical roles in the initiation and modulation of inflammation and their levels have been reported increased in several neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Here, we aimed to determine whether brain expression PLA(2) enzymes and the terminal prostagland in levels are changed during cuprizone-induced demyelination and in the subsequent remyelination phase. Mice were given the neurotoxicant cuprizone through the diet for six weeks to induce brain demyelination. Then, cuprizone was withdrawn and mice were returned to a normal diet for 6 weeks to allow spontaneous remyelination. We found that after 4-6 weeks of cuprizone, sPLA(2)(V) and cPLA(2), but not iPLA(2)(VI), gene expression was upregulated in the cortex, concomitant with an increase in the expression of astrocyte and microglia markers. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene expression was consistently upregulated during all the demyelination period, whereas COX-1 sporadically increased only at week 5 of cuprizone exposure. However, we found that at the protein level only sPLA(2)(V) and COX-1 were elevated during demyelination, with COX-1 selectively expressed by activated and infiltrated microglia/macrophages and astrocytes. Levels of PGE(2), PGD(2), PGI(2) and TXB(2) were also increased during demyelination. During remyelination, none of the PLA(2) isoforms was significantly changed, whereas COX-1 and -2 were sporadically upregulated only at the gene expression level. PGE(2), PGI(2) and PGD(2) levels returned to normal, whereas TXB(2) was still upregulated after 3 weeks of cuprizone withdrawal. Our study characterizes for the first time time-dependent changes in the AA metabolic pathway during cuprizone-induced demyelination and the subsequent remyelination and suggests that sPLA(2)(V) is the major isoform contributing to AA release.
Palumbo, Sara; Toscano, C. D.; Parente, L.; Weigert, R.; Bosetti, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/772560
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