Surgical stress induces complex modifications in the hemodynamic, metabolic, neuro-hormonal and immune response of the individual. The magnitude of these alterations depends on preoperative events leading to surgery, the severity of surgical trauma, and also on post-operative/post-traumatic complications (multiple hit hypothesis). As in other conditions of tissue damage, surgery trauma is followed by an immune-inflammatory response, initiated at the site of injury by the innate immune system, followed by a compensatory anti-inflammatory (or immunosuppressive) response (CARS), involving mainly cells of the adaptive immune system, which predispose the host to septic complications. The up-regulated inflammatory response, together with a profound impairment of macrophage and cell-mediated immunity, appear to be the cause for patients' increased susceptibility in developing subsequent sepsis after major surgery.
|Autori:||Cardinale F; Chinellato I; Caimmi S; Peroni DG; Franceschini F; Miraglia Del Giudice M; Bernardini R.|
|Titolo:||Perioperative period: immunological modifications.|
|Anno del prodotto:||2011|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|