Truncated or shorter forms of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), originating by alternative splicing, have been considered physiologically irrelevant for a rather long time. Nevertheless, it is now recognized that alternative splicing variants of GPCRs greatly increase the total number of receptor isoforms and can regulate receptor trafficking and signalling. Furthermore, dimerization of these truncated variants with other receptors concurs to expand receptor diversity. Highly truncated variants of GPCRs, typically, are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and by heteromerization prevent the wild-type receptor to reach the plasma membrane, exerting a dominant-negative effect on its function. This can be responsible for some pathological conditions but in some other cases, it can offer protection from a disease because the expression of the receptor, that is necessary for binding an infectious agent, is attenuated. Here, we propose a possible new mechanism of creation of truncated GPCR variants through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a nucleotide sequence that allows cap independent translation of proteins by recruiting the ribosome in proximity of an internal initiation codon. We suggest that an IRES, situated in the third cytoplasmic loop, could be responsible for the translation of the last two transmembrane (TM) regions of the muscarinic M2 receptor. IRES driven expression of this C-terminal part of the muscarinic M2 receptor could represent a novel and additional mechanism of receptor regulation.

Variants of G protein-coupled receptors: A reappraisal of their role in receptor regulation

SCARSELLI, MARCO
2016

Abstract

Truncated or shorter forms of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), originating by alternative splicing, have been considered physiologically irrelevant for a rather long time. Nevertheless, it is now recognized that alternative splicing variants of GPCRs greatly increase the total number of receptor isoforms and can regulate receptor trafficking and signalling. Furthermore, dimerization of these truncated variants with other receptors concurs to expand receptor diversity. Highly truncated variants of GPCRs, typically, are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and by heteromerization prevent the wild-type receptor to reach the plasma membrane, exerting a dominant-negative effect on its function. This can be responsible for some pathological conditions but in some other cases, it can offer protection from a disease because the expression of the receptor, that is necessary for binding an infectious agent, is attenuated. Here, we propose a possible new mechanism of creation of truncated GPCR variants through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES), a nucleotide sequence that allows cap independent translation of proteins by recruiting the ribosome in proximity of an internal initiation codon. We suggest that an IRES, situated in the third cytoplasmic loop, could be responsible for the translation of the last two transmembrane (TM) regions of the muscarinic M2 receptor. IRES driven expression of this C-terminal part of the muscarinic M2 receptor could represent a novel and additional mechanism of receptor regulation.
Maggio, Roberto; Fasciani, Irene; Rossi, Mario; Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Pietrantoni, Ilaria; Puca, Valentina; Flati, Vincenzo; Scarselli, Marco
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/845327
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