We report the results of six impact fragmentation experiments carried out with free-falling macroscopic targets of different compositions and shapes, and with projectile velocities close to 9 km/sec, i.e., significantly higher than the sound velocity in the target materials. The data have been examined by deriving the mass and shape distributions of the fragments, by reconstructing two of the shattered targets in order to study the geometry of the fracture surfaces, and by analyzing the properties of the fine-grained high-velocity ejecta. The fragment mass distributions show clearly that the degree of target fragmentation depends strongly on the impact parameter. Apart from the few largest fragments, these distributions are well represented by two power laws with different exponents, connected at a size of about 1 cm. The fragment shapes are generally in good agreement with those observed in previous experiments, and no significant shape vs size dependence has been found down to sizes of the order of 0.1 mm. The fragments tend to become larger and possibly more irregular in shape when they are generated farther from the impact point. The fracture surfaces are oriented roughly along meridians and parallels (with the pole at the impact point) when the target is spherical, but are clustered around the symmetry planes when the target is ellipsoidal. Fine-grained particles, with typical sizes and velocities of 0.01 cm and 1 km/sec, respectively, are ejected at low-elevation angles and in a rather collimated way, starting both from the neighborhood of the impact point and from regions of incipient cracking. Particular attention has been paid to a comparison between these results and the observed properties of the outcomes of asteroidal catastrophic collisions, like the dynamical families and the small inner planet crossing objects. While the collisional theory for the origin of families is fully consistent with the experimental results (with some indication for a significant role of the parent asteroid's self-gravitation), the elongated shapes of several Apollo-Amor objects are much rarer among the laboratory fragments, and thus appear to require a different explanation. © 1986.

Asteroidal catastrophic collisions simulated by hypervelocity impact experiments

FARINELLA, PAOLO;PAOLICCHI, PAOLO;
1986-01-01

Abstract

We report the results of six impact fragmentation experiments carried out with free-falling macroscopic targets of different compositions and shapes, and with projectile velocities close to 9 km/sec, i.e., significantly higher than the sound velocity in the target materials. The data have been examined by deriving the mass and shape distributions of the fragments, by reconstructing two of the shattered targets in order to study the geometry of the fracture surfaces, and by analyzing the properties of the fine-grained high-velocity ejecta. The fragment mass distributions show clearly that the degree of target fragmentation depends strongly on the impact parameter. Apart from the few largest fragments, these distributions are well represented by two power laws with different exponents, connected at a size of about 1 cm. The fragment shapes are generally in good agreement with those observed in previous experiments, and no significant shape vs size dependence has been found down to sizes of the order of 0.1 mm. The fragments tend to become larger and possibly more irregular in shape when they are generated farther from the impact point. The fracture surfaces are oriented roughly along meridians and parallels (with the pole at the impact point) when the target is spherical, but are clustered around the symmetry planes when the target is ellipsoidal. Fine-grained particles, with typical sizes and velocities of 0.01 cm and 1 km/sec, respectively, are ejected at low-elevation angles and in a rather collimated way, starting both from the neighborhood of the impact point and from regions of incipient cracking. Particular attention has been paid to a comparison between these results and the observed properties of the outcomes of asteroidal catastrophic collisions, like the dynamical families and the small inner planet crossing objects. While the collisional theory for the origin of families is fully consistent with the experimental results (with some indication for a significant role of the parent asteroid's self-gravitation), the elongated shapes of several Apollo-Amor objects are much rarer among the laboratory fragments, and thus appear to require a different explanation. © 1986.
1986
Capaccioni, F; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, M.; Di Martino, M.; Farinella, Paolo; Flamini, E.; Martelli, G.; Paolicchi, Paolo; Smith, P. N.; Woodward, A.; Zappala, V.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/855647
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