Cardiac remodeling is considered the determinant of the clinical progression of heart failure. It is defined as a genome expression resulting in molecular, cellular and interstitial changes, clinically manifested as changes in size, shape and function of the heart. Ventricular remodeling occurs progressively in untreated patients after large myocardial infarction and in those with longstanding cardiomyopathy. Myocyte hypertrophy, cellular apoptosis and increased interstitial collagen deposition are the anatomopathological alterations leading to increased myocardial fibrosis. Myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis increase left ventricular volume and induce perturbation in the left ventricular chamber geometry, leading to cardiac dysfunction. As a result, the assessment of cardiac fibrosis holds important clinical value in patients with heart failure. Accordingly, there is an increasing interest in the development of new markers for cardiac fibrosis and a number of laboratory tests have been recently proposed. The aim of the present article is to discuss analytical performances and clinical relevance of these markers.
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