Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) is a complication occurring in the luteal phase of a menstrual cycle in which ovulation induction or ovarian hyperstimu- lation for assisted reproduction techniques has been performed. Our report concerns the death of a 31-year-old woman with primary infertility on recombinant follicle stimulating hormone therapy (Gonal-F) who developed a fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome. Immunohisto- chemical investigation of lung and uterine samples was performed utilizing monoclonal antibodies for antisurfac- tant apoprotein (PE-10) and polyclonal antibodies anti-IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNFα for lungs, and polyclonal antibodies anti-β-HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) for uterus. The knowledge of macroscopic and histologic findings should be of special interest for all those who perform autopsies in these victims. The exact pathogenesis of OHSS remains a mystery; so for the diagnosis of suspected OHSS, the forensic pathologist must use all the modern laboratory armament to validate the diagnosis in the extremely rare fatal cases due to this syndrome.
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