Timeliness and accuracy in the diagnosis of microbial infections are associated with decreased mortality and reduced length of hospitalization, especially for severe, life-threatening infections. A rapid diagnosis also allows for early streamlining of empirical antimicrobial therapies, thus contributing to limit the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for routine identification of microbial pathogens has profoundly influenced microbiological diagnostics, and is progressively replacing biochemical identification methods. Compared to currently used identification methods, MALDI-TOF MS has the advantage of identifying bacteria and yeasts directly from colonies grown on culture plates for primary isolation in a few minutes and with considerable material and labor savings. The reliability and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identification of clinically relevant bacteria and yeasts has been demonstrated by several studies showing that the performance of MALDI-TOF MS is comparable or superior to phenotypic methods currently in use in clinical microbiology laboratories, and can be further improved by database updates and analysis software upgrades. Besides microbial identification from isolated colonies, new perspectives are being explored for MALDI-TOF MS, such as identification of pathogens directly from positive blood cultures, sub-species typing, and detection of drug resistance determinants. In this review, we summarize the state of the art in routine identification of microbial pathogens by MALDI-TOF MS, and highlight recent advancements of this technology in special applications, such as strain typing, assessment of drug susceptibility, and detection of virulence factors.

Recent advances and ongoing challenges in the diagnosis of microbial infections by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

Tavanti, Arianna;Ghelardi, Emilia;Lupetti, Antonella
Ultimo
2018-01-01

Abstract

Timeliness and accuracy in the diagnosis of microbial infections are associated with decreased mortality and reduced length of hospitalization, especially for severe, life-threatening infections. A rapid diagnosis also allows for early streamlining of empirical antimicrobial therapies, thus contributing to limit the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for routine identification of microbial pathogens has profoundly influenced microbiological diagnostics, and is progressively replacing biochemical identification methods. Compared to currently used identification methods, MALDI-TOF MS has the advantage of identifying bacteria and yeasts directly from colonies grown on culture plates for primary isolation in a few minutes and with considerable material and labor savings. The reliability and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identification of clinically relevant bacteria and yeasts has been demonstrated by several studies showing that the performance of MALDI-TOF MS is comparable or superior to phenotypic methods currently in use in clinical microbiology laboratories, and can be further improved by database updates and analysis software upgrades. Besides microbial identification from isolated colonies, new perspectives are being explored for MALDI-TOF MS, such as identification of pathogens directly from positive blood cultures, sub-species typing, and detection of drug resistance determinants. In this review, we summarize the state of the art in routine identification of microbial pathogens by MALDI-TOF MS, and highlight recent advancements of this technology in special applications, such as strain typing, assessment of drug susceptibility, and detection of virulence factors.
2018
Florio, Walter; Tavanti, Arianna; Barnini, Simona; Ghelardi, Emilia; Lupetti, Antonella
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/924468
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