AimsThe activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is known to inhibit angiogenesis. As a potential mechanism for this, we aimed at examining the effects of PPAR agonists on the pro-angiogenic enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in human endothelium.Methods and resultsCultured endothelial cells were pre-incubated with the PPAR agonists rosiglitazone (RSG) or GW1929 before stimulation with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). RSG and GW1929 attenuated VEGF-and PMA-stimulated COX-2 activity, as well as protein and mRNA expression. This effect was abolished by the PPAR antagonists bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and GW9662 as well as by PPAR small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Transient transfection experiments revealed that the induction of COX-2 promoter was significantly inhibited by RSG through an interference with the cAMP response element (CRE) site. COX-2 downregulation after siRNA targeting CRE-binding protein (CREB) confirmed the role of CREB in mediating COX-2 transcription. Correspondingly, PPAR agonists attenuated CREB activation. As both protein kinase C (PKC) and are involved in VEGF-induced COX-2 expression and CREB activation, we investigated which isoform(s) of PKC was affected by RSG. RSG only reduced VEGF-and PMA-stimulated PKC membrane translocation.ConclusionVEGF induces CREB-mediated COX-2 expression through a PKC-dependent pathway in human endothelium. The anti-angiogenic effect of PPAR agonists is due, at least in part, to an interference with the VEGF-stimulated PKC-mediated activation of CREB and the related expression of COX-2.
|Autori:||Scoditti, E; Massaro, M; Carluccio, Ma; Distante, A; Storelli, C; De Caterina, R|
|Titolo:||PPAR γ agonists inhibit angiogenesis by suppressing PKCα-and CREB-mediated COX-2 expression in the human endothelium|
|Anno del prodotto:||2010|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1093/cvr/cvp400|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|