Levothyroxine, a largely prescribed drug with a narrow therapeutic index, is often a lifelong treatment. The therapeutic efficacy of thyroxine may be marred by behavioral, pharmacologic and pathologic issues acting as interfering factors. Despite a continuous search for an optimal thyroxine treatment, a significant number of patients fail to show a complete chemical and/or clinical response to this reference dose of thyroxine. Gastrointestinal malabsorption of oral thyroxine represents an emerging cause of refractory hypothyroidism and may be more frequent than previously reputed.In this review article we aimed at examining the pharmacologic features of thyroxine preparations and their linkage with the intestinal absorption of the hormone. We have stressed the major biochemical and pharmacologic characteristics of thyroxine and its interaction with the putative transporter at the intestinal level. We have examined the interfering role of nutrients, foods, and drugs on thyroxine absorption at gastric and intestinal level. The impact of gastrointestinal disorders on thyroxine treatment efficacy has been also analyzed, in keeping with the site of action and the interfering mechanisms. Based on the evidence obtained from the literature, we also propose a schematic diagnostic workup for the most frequent and, often hidden, gastrointestinal diseases impairing thyroxine absorption.
|Autori:||Virili, Camilla; Antonelli, Alessandro; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Benvenga, Salvatore; Centanni, Marco|
|Titolo:||Gastrointestinal Malabsorption of Thyroxine|
|Anno del prodotto:||2019|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1210/er.2018-00168|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|