Several molecular tests have been developed for thyroid cytology with the main purpose to define the nature of indeterminate nodules in presurgical phase thus overcoming the limitations of cytological analysis. Molecular tests currently available for thyroid nodules are based on a variety of methodologies and display peculiar strengths and limitations: in this review of the literature they are summarized and critically discussed. The use of molecular diagnostics for thyroid cytology is increasingly widespread and accepted, however large, prospective validation studies are still needed to ultimately demonstrate the clinical efficacy of a wide incorporation of molecular tests into clinical practice.
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