Background. The management of modifiable risk factors exposure, in particular dyslipidemia, is the first line of intervention in preventing cardiovascular events. HDLs have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties and, among HDLs, Apolipoprotein A-I (APOA-1), which promotes reverse cholesterol efflux, has been deeply investigated for the great therapeutic potential, particularly emphasized for the naturally occurring mutation APOA-1Milano (APOA-1M). Despite the high therapeutic potential of these molecules, their purification and delivery into the disordered organism is still limited by a very low efficiency in these processes. Aim. To develop an efficient system of production and delivery of APOA-1 muteins without need of purification. Methods and Results. Rice plants were genetically modified to express APOA-1M protein in their seeds. Protein extract from transgenic rice seeds (the ‘APOA-1M rice milk’) was tested for functionality in vitro on THP-1 macrophages exposed to oxLDL. Protein extract from wild type rice seeds (the ‘WT rice milk’) was used as control. The APOA-1M rice milk, but not the WT rice milk, significantly reduced expression of MCP-1 in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner and it promoted reverse cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. The lack of toxicity and the tolerability of the orally administered APOA-1M rice milk was evaluated in healthy mice. In an early-intermediate atherosclerotic mouse model (Apoe-/-mice fed with Western Diet for 8 weeks), 3 weeks of APOA-1M, but not the WT, rice milk treatment (15d, 5d/week, by oral gavage) significantly reduced area of lipid deposition and lipids concentration at aortic arch (en face analysis). Moreover, the APOA-1M, but not the WT, rice milk treatment reduced the hepatic CD68-positive cells and ameliorated the lipid management gene expression profile in liver of WD-fed Apoe-/-mice. Interestingly, all these findings were observed in mice still exposed to WD during the therapeutic treatment. Conclusion. The oral delivery of APOA-1M muteins, by means of genetically modified rice seeds extract, is athero-protective and anti-inflammatory even if the organism is exposed to high fat diet during the treatment, suggesting that this therapeutic approach could be effective in preventing and in counteracting atherogenic risk factors.

Innovative and Efficient Oral Delivery Method of APOA-1Milano Muteins Which Retain Anti-Atherosclerotic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

Giovannoni, Roberto;
2018

Abstract

Background. The management of modifiable risk factors exposure, in particular dyslipidemia, is the first line of intervention in preventing cardiovascular events. HDLs have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective properties and, among HDLs, Apolipoprotein A-I (APOA-1), which promotes reverse cholesterol efflux, has been deeply investigated for the great therapeutic potential, particularly emphasized for the naturally occurring mutation APOA-1Milano (APOA-1M). Despite the high therapeutic potential of these molecules, their purification and delivery into the disordered organism is still limited by a very low efficiency in these processes. Aim. To develop an efficient system of production and delivery of APOA-1 muteins without need of purification. Methods and Results. Rice plants were genetically modified to express APOA-1M protein in their seeds. Protein extract from transgenic rice seeds (the ‘APOA-1M rice milk’) was tested for functionality in vitro on THP-1 macrophages exposed to oxLDL. Protein extract from wild type rice seeds (the ‘WT rice milk’) was used as control. The APOA-1M rice milk, but not the WT rice milk, significantly reduced expression of MCP-1 in oxLDL-loaded THP-1 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner and it promoted reverse cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. The lack of toxicity and the tolerability of the orally administered APOA-1M rice milk was evaluated in healthy mice. In an early-intermediate atherosclerotic mouse model (Apoe-/-mice fed with Western Diet for 8 weeks), 3 weeks of APOA-1M, but not the WT, rice milk treatment (15d, 5d/week, by oral gavage) significantly reduced area of lipid deposition and lipids concentration at aortic arch (en face analysis). Moreover, the APOA-1M, but not the WT, rice milk treatment reduced the hepatic CD68-positive cells and ameliorated the lipid management gene expression profile in liver of WD-fed Apoe-/-mice. Interestingly, all these findings were observed in mice still exposed to WD during the therapeutic treatment. Conclusion. The oral delivery of APOA-1M muteins, by means of genetically modified rice seeds extract, is athero-protective and anti-inflammatory even if the organism is exposed to high fat diet during the treatment, suggesting that this therapeutic approach could be effective in preventing and in counteracting atherogenic risk factors.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/945487
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 0
social impact