Graves’ disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) are the two main clinical presentations of AITD, and their clinical hallmarks are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. GD, and AT, can be associated with other organ specific, or systemic autoimmune diseases in the same patient. However discordant results have been reported in the literature about the possible associations. Here, we review the association of GD and other autoimmune syndromes. Furthermore, we report the results of our prospective study that investigated the prevalence of other autoimmune disorders in 3209 GD patients (984 with Graves’ ophthalmopathy), with respect to 1069 healthy controls, or 1069 patients with AT, or 1069 with multinodular goiter (matched by age, gender, coming from the same area, with a similar iodine intake). On the whole, 16.7% of GD patients had another associated autoimmune disease; and the most frequently observed were: vitiligo (2.6%), chronic autoimmune gastritis (2.4%), rheumatoid arthritis (1.9%), polymyalgia rheumatica (1.3%), multiple sclerosis (0.3%), celiac disease (1.1%), diabetes (type 1) (0.9%), systemic lupus erythematosus and sarcoidosis (<0.1%), Sjogren disease (0.8%). Moreover, 1.5% patients with GD had three associated autoimmune disorders. Interestingly, patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) had another autoimmmune disorder more frequently (18.9%), with respect to GD patients without GO (15.6%). However the pattern of the associated autoimmune disorders in GD was not significantly different from that observed in AT patients. In conclusion, we suggest GD patients who are still sick, or who develop new unspecific symptoms (even if during an appropriate treatment of hyperthyroidism) should be appropriately screened for the presence of other autoimmune disorders.

The association of other autoimmune diseases in patients with Graves’ disease (with or without ophthalmopathy): Review of the literature and report of a large series

Ferrari, Silvia Martina;Fallahi, Poupak;Antonelli, Alessandro
2019-01-01

Abstract

Graves’ disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT) are the two main clinical presentations of AITD, and their clinical hallmarks are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. GD, and AT, can be associated with other organ specific, or systemic autoimmune diseases in the same patient. However discordant results have been reported in the literature about the possible associations. Here, we review the association of GD and other autoimmune syndromes. Furthermore, we report the results of our prospective study that investigated the prevalence of other autoimmune disorders in 3209 GD patients (984 with Graves’ ophthalmopathy), with respect to 1069 healthy controls, or 1069 patients with AT, or 1069 with multinodular goiter (matched by age, gender, coming from the same area, with a similar iodine intake). On the whole, 16.7% of GD patients had another associated autoimmune disease; and the most frequently observed were: vitiligo (2.6%), chronic autoimmune gastritis (2.4%), rheumatoid arthritis (1.9%), polymyalgia rheumatica (1.3%), multiple sclerosis (0.3%), celiac disease (1.1%), diabetes (type 1) (0.9%), systemic lupus erythematosus and sarcoidosis (<0.1%), Sjogren disease (0.8%). Moreover, 1.5% patients with GD had three associated autoimmune disorders. Interestingly, patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) had another autoimmmune disorder more frequently (18.9%), with respect to GD patients without GO (15.6%). However the pattern of the associated autoimmune disorders in GD was not significantly different from that observed in AT patients. In conclusion, we suggest GD patients who are still sick, or who develop new unspecific symptoms (even if during an appropriate treatment of hyperthyroidism) should be appropriately screened for the presence of other autoimmune disorders.
Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Ruffilli, Ilaria; Elia, Giusy; Ragusa, Francesca; Benvenga, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/956571
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