In order to assess possible influences of occlusion on motor performance, we studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the changes in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal induced at brain level by a finger to thumb motor task in a population of subjects characterized by an asymmetric activation of jaw muscles during clenching (malocclusion). In these subjects, appropriate occlusal correction by an oral orthotic (bite) reduced the masticatory asymmetry. The finger to thumb task was performed while the subject's dental arches were touching, in two conditions: (a) with the teeth in direct contact (Bite OFF) and (b) with the bite interposed between the arches (Bite ON). Both conditions required only a very slight activation of masticatory muscles. Maps of the BOLD signal recorded during the movement were contrasted with the resting condition (activation maps). Between conditions comparison of the activation maps (Bite OFF/Bite ON) showed that, in Bite OFF, the BOLD signal was significantly higher in the trigeminal sensorimotor region, the premotor cortex, the cerebellum, the inferior temporal and occipital cortex, the calcarine cortex, the precuneus on both sides, as well as in the right posterior cingulate cortex. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that malocclusion makes movement performance more difficult, leading to a stronger activation of (a) sensorimotor areas not dealing with the control of the involved body part, (b) regions planning the motor sequence, and (c) the cerebellum, which is essential in motor coordination. Moreover, the findings of a higher activation of temporo-occipital cortex and precuneus/cingulus, respectively, suggest that, during malocclusion, the movement occurs with an increased visual imagery activity, and requires a stronger attentive effort.

Unbalanced occlusion modifies the pattern of brain activity during execution of a finger to thumb motor task

Tramonti Fantozzi M. P.;Faraguna U.;Manzoni D.
2019-01-01

Abstract

In order to assess possible influences of occlusion on motor performance, we studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the changes in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal induced at brain level by a finger to thumb motor task in a population of subjects characterized by an asymmetric activation of jaw muscles during clenching (malocclusion). In these subjects, appropriate occlusal correction by an oral orthotic (bite) reduced the masticatory asymmetry. The finger to thumb task was performed while the subject's dental arches were touching, in two conditions: (a) with the teeth in direct contact (Bite OFF) and (b) with the bite interposed between the arches (Bite ON). Both conditions required only a very slight activation of masticatory muscles. Maps of the BOLD signal recorded during the movement were contrasted with the resting condition (activation maps). Between conditions comparison of the activation maps (Bite OFF/Bite ON) showed that, in Bite OFF, the BOLD signal was significantly higher in the trigeminal sensorimotor region, the premotor cortex, the cerebellum, the inferior temporal and occipital cortex, the calcarine cortex, the precuneus on both sides, as well as in the right posterior cingulate cortex. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that malocclusion makes movement performance more difficult, leading to a stronger activation of (a) sensorimotor areas not dealing with the control of the involved body part, (b) regions planning the motor sequence, and (c) the cerebellum, which is essential in motor coordination. Moreover, the findings of a higher activation of temporo-occipital cortex and precuneus/cingulus, respectively, suggest that, during malocclusion, the movement occurs with an increased visual imagery activity, and requires a stronger attentive effort.
2019
Tramonti Fantozzi, M. P.; Diciotti, S.; Tessa, C.; Castagna, B.; Chiesa, D.; Barresi, M.; Ravenna, G.; Faraguna, U.; Vignali, C.; De Cicco, V.; Manzoni, D.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/996107
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