Drug resistance is of great importance to human and animal health, but wild environments are still poorly understood in terms of their function as reservoirs of dangerous microbes and resistance determinants. The aim of the study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and virulence factors of Enterococcus bacteria from wildlife in Tuscany, Italy. Of the 36 mammalian fecal samples, 52 isolates were derived and classified as Enterococcus faecium (46% of isolates), Enterococcus hirae (19%), Enterococcus faecalis (13%), Enterococcus gallinarum (8%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (6%), Enterococcus durans (4%), Enterococcus mundtii (2%), and Enterococcus canintestini (2%) using both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and methods based on analysis of genetic material. The isolates tested showed the most frequent resistance to tetracycline (36.5% isolates), ciprofloxacin (36.5%), and erythromycin (25%). Three isolates showed high level of resistance (minimal inhibitory concentration ≥1,024 μg/mL) to vancomycin and teicoplanin, and 15% of the isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance. No isolate resistant to ampicillin, linezolid, or streptomycin was found. Among resistance genes, aac(6)-Ii (50% isolates), msrA/B (48%), msrC (42%), and tetM (31%) were identified most frequently. All E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates were positive for the efaAfm and efaAfs genes, respectively. Other virulence-associated genes, that is, gelE, cylA, asa1, esp, ace, orf1481, ptsD, and sgrA, were found in the majority of E. faecalis and several E. faecium isolates. Multilocus sequence typing analysis performed for selected isolates revealed three new sequence types. The results obtained indicate that wild mammals might act as reservoirs of resistance and virulence determinants that could be transferred between different ecosystems.

Antibiotic Susceptibility and Virulence Genes in Enterococcus Isolates from Wild Mammals Living in Tuscany, Italy.

Fratini F;Cerri D;Turchi B
2020-01-01

Abstract

Drug resistance is of great importance to human and animal health, but wild environments are still poorly understood in terms of their function as reservoirs of dangerous microbes and resistance determinants. The aim of the study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility and virulence factors of Enterococcus bacteria from wildlife in Tuscany, Italy. Of the 36 mammalian fecal samples, 52 isolates were derived and classified as Enterococcus faecium (46% of isolates), Enterococcus hirae (19%), Enterococcus faecalis (13%), Enterococcus gallinarum (8%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (6%), Enterococcus durans (4%), Enterococcus mundtii (2%), and Enterococcus canintestini (2%) using both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and methods based on analysis of genetic material. The isolates tested showed the most frequent resistance to tetracycline (36.5% isolates), ciprofloxacin (36.5%), and erythromycin (25%). Three isolates showed high level of resistance (minimal inhibitory concentration ≥1,024 μg/mL) to vancomycin and teicoplanin, and 15% of the isolates demonstrated multidrug resistance. No isolate resistant to ampicillin, linezolid, or streptomycin was found. Among resistance genes, aac(6)-Ii (50% isolates), msrA/B (48%), msrC (42%), and tetM (31%) were identified most frequently. All E. faecium and E. faecalis isolates were positive for the efaAfm and efaAfs genes, respectively. Other virulence-associated genes, that is, gelE, cylA, asa1, esp, ace, orf1481, ptsD, and sgrA, were found in the majority of E. faecalis and several E. faecium isolates. Multilocus sequence typing analysis performed for selected isolates revealed three new sequence types. The results obtained indicate that wild mammals might act as reservoirs of resistance and virulence determinants that could be transferred between different ecosystems.
2020
Dec, M; Stępień-Pyśniak, D; Gnat, S; Fratini, F; Urban-Chmiel, R; Cerri, D; Winiarczyk, S; Turchi, B
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1012659
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