Specialized metabolites constitute a major antioxidant system involved in plant defence against environmental constraints, such as tropospheric ozone (O3). The objective of this experiment was to give a thorough description of the effects of an O3 pulse (120 ppb, 5 h) on the phenylpropanoid metabolism of sage, at both biochemical and molecular levels. Variable O3-induced changes were observed over time among the detected phenylpropanoid compounds (mostly identified as phenolic acids and flavonoids), likely because of their extraordinary functional diversity. Furthermore, decreases in the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), phenol oxidase (PPO), and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS) activities were reported during the first hours of treatment, probably due to an O3-induced oxidative damage to proteins. Both PAL and PPO activities were also suppressed at 24 h from the beginning of exposure, whereas enhanced RAS activity occurred at the end of treatment and at the recovery time, suggesting that specific branches of the phenolic pathways were activated. The increased RAS activity was accompanied by the upregulation of the transcript levels of genes like RAS, tyrosine aminotransferase, and cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. In conclusion, sage faced the O3 pulse by regulating the activation of the phenolic biosynthetic route as an integrated defence mechanism.

The biosynthesis of phenolic compounds is an integrated defence mechanism to prevent ozone injury in Salvia officinalis

Alessandra Marchica;Lorenzo Cotrozzi;Rebecca Detti;Giacomo Lorenzini;Elisa Pellegrini
;
Cristina Nali
2020

Abstract

Specialized metabolites constitute a major antioxidant system involved in plant defence against environmental constraints, such as tropospheric ozone (O3). The objective of this experiment was to give a thorough description of the effects of an O3 pulse (120 ppb, 5 h) on the phenylpropanoid metabolism of sage, at both biochemical and molecular levels. Variable O3-induced changes were observed over time among the detected phenylpropanoid compounds (mostly identified as phenolic acids and flavonoids), likely because of their extraordinary functional diversity. Furthermore, decreases in the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), phenol oxidase (PPO), and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS) activities were reported during the first hours of treatment, probably due to an O3-induced oxidative damage to proteins. Both PAL and PPO activities were also suppressed at 24 h from the beginning of exposure, whereas enhanced RAS activity occurred at the end of treatment and at the recovery time, suggesting that specific branches of the phenolic pathways were activated. The increased RAS activity was accompanied by the upregulation of the transcript levels of genes like RAS, tyrosine aminotransferase, and cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. In conclusion, sage faced the O3 pulse by regulating the activation of the phenolic biosynthetic route as an integrated defence mechanism.
Marchica, Alessandra; Cotrozzi, Lorenzo; Detti, Rebecca; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Pellegrini, Elisa; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1064729
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact