We report on the results of an in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction study of the crystallisation in aqueous medium of two recently discovered perfluorinated CeIV-based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), analogues of the already well investigated ZrIV-based UiO-66 and MIL-140A, namely, F4_UiO-66(Ce) and F4_MIL-140A(Ce). The two MOFs were originally obtained in pure form in similar conditions, using ammonium cerium nitrate and tetrafluoroterephthalic acid as reagents, and small variations of the reaction parameters were found to yield mixed phases. Here, we investigate the crystallisation of these compounds, varying parameters such as temperature, amount of the protonation modulator nitric acid and amount of the coordination modulator acetic acid. When only HNO3 is present in the reaction environment, only F4_MIL-140A(Ce) is obtained. Heating preferentially accelerates nucleation, which becomes rate determining below 57 °C. Upon addition of AcOH to the system, alongside HNO3, mixed-phased products are obtained. F4_UiO-66(Ce) is always formed faster, and no interconversion between the two phases occurs. In the case of F4_UiO-66(Ce), crystal growth is always the rate-determining step. A higher amount of HNO3 favours the formation of F4_MIL-140A(Ce), whereas increasing the amount of AcOH favours the formation of F4_UiO-66(Ce). Based on the in situ results, a new optimised route to achieving a pure, high-quality F4_MIL-140A(Ce) phase in mild conditions (60 °C, 1 h) is also identified.

In Situ X-ray Diffraction Investigation of the Crystallisation of Perfluorinated CeIV-Based Metal–Organic Frameworks with UiO-66 and MIL-140 Architectures

Taddei M.
2021-01-01

Abstract

We report on the results of an in situ synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction study of the crystallisation in aqueous medium of two recently discovered perfluorinated CeIV-based metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), analogues of the already well investigated ZrIV-based UiO-66 and MIL-140A, namely, F4_UiO-66(Ce) and F4_MIL-140A(Ce). The two MOFs were originally obtained in pure form in similar conditions, using ammonium cerium nitrate and tetrafluoroterephthalic acid as reagents, and small variations of the reaction parameters were found to yield mixed phases. Here, we investigate the crystallisation of these compounds, varying parameters such as temperature, amount of the protonation modulator nitric acid and amount of the coordination modulator acetic acid. When only HNO3 is present in the reaction environment, only F4_MIL-140A(Ce) is obtained. Heating preferentially accelerates nucleation, which becomes rate determining below 57 °C. Upon addition of AcOH to the system, alongside HNO3, mixed-phased products are obtained. F4_UiO-66(Ce) is always formed faster, and no interconversion between the two phases occurs. In the case of F4_UiO-66(Ce), crystal growth is always the rate-determining step. A higher amount of HNO3 favours the formation of F4_MIL-140A(Ce), whereas increasing the amount of AcOH favours the formation of F4_UiO-66(Ce). Based on the in situ results, a new optimised route to achieving a pure, high-quality F4_MIL-140A(Ce) phase in mild conditions (60 °C, 1 h) is also identified.
2021
Shearan, S. J. I.; Jacobsen, J.; Costantino, F.; D'Amato, R.; Novikov, D.; Stock, N.; Andreoli, E.; Taddei, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1107624
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