Objectives: Arterial stiffness as pulse wave velocity (PWV) predicts cardiovascular events independently of blood pressure (BP). PWV does not distinguish between stiffness in systole and diastole. This cross-sectional study aimed to test the hypothesis that viscous and elastic carotid wall properties differ between systole and diastole, distinguishing effects of ageing, hypertension and T2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: We examined carotid visco-elasticity in 307 people (180 men), with hypertension alone (n = 69), combined hypertension/T2DM (H-T2DM, n = 99), normotensive (N-T2DM, n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 114). Diameter (D)/pressure (P) waveforms were measured at right /left common carotid arteries, respectively. Local carotid PWV and distensibility in systole and diastole were evaluated by the (DP)-P-2-loop method, and wall viscosity from hysteresis, the area (H-A) within the P--D loop, as a dynamic measure of systolic loading and diastolic unloading. Results: Controls' hysteresis fell quadratically with age (R-2 = 0.23, P < 0.001). Yet mean H-A in hypertensive patients (0.95, 95% CI 0.65-1.23) was six-fold higher than in age-matched controls (0.14, -0.20 to 0.49, P < 0.001) with a 2.5x difference between diastolic ((d)Ds) to systolic ((s)Ds) distensibility (P < 0.05) in hypertensive patients. H-A was higher in hypertensive patients and H-T2DMs (0.80, 0.58-1.04) than N-T2DMs (0.20, -0.17 to 0.54, P < 0.05), but similar between controls and N-T2DMs. BP-adjusted carotid diameters in all T2DM were significantly greater compared with controls and hypertensive patients. Conclusion: Higher BP increased wall viscosity, hysteresis and relative difference between systolic and diastolic distensibility across groups. Carotid diameters were increased in all T2DMs, more in H-T2DM, probably altering BP-flow dynamics in T2DM.

Noninvasive carotid pressure-diameter loops to identify viscoelastic properties in ageing, hypertension and type 2 diabetes

Giudici, Alessandro;Palombo, Carlo
Co-primo
Conceptualization
;
Morizzo, Carmela
Data Curation
;
Penno, Giuseppe;Della Latta, Daniele;Chiappino, Dante;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Objectives: Arterial stiffness as pulse wave velocity (PWV) predicts cardiovascular events independently of blood pressure (BP). PWV does not distinguish between stiffness in systole and diastole. This cross-sectional study aimed to test the hypothesis that viscous and elastic carotid wall properties differ between systole and diastole, distinguishing effects of ageing, hypertension and T2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods: We examined carotid visco-elasticity in 307 people (180 men), with hypertension alone (n = 69), combined hypertension/T2DM (H-T2DM, n = 99), normotensive (N-T2DM, n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 114). Diameter (D)/pressure (P) waveforms were measured at right /left common carotid arteries, respectively. Local carotid PWV and distensibility in systole and diastole were evaluated by the (DP)-P-2-loop method, and wall viscosity from hysteresis, the area (H-A) within the P--D loop, as a dynamic measure of systolic loading and diastolic unloading. Results: Controls' hysteresis fell quadratically with age (R-2 = 0.23, P < 0.001). Yet mean H-A in hypertensive patients (0.95, 95% CI 0.65-1.23) was six-fold higher than in age-matched controls (0.14, -0.20 to 0.49, P < 0.001) with a 2.5x difference between diastolic ((d)Ds) to systolic ((s)Ds) distensibility (P < 0.05) in hypertensive patients. H-A was higher in hypertensive patients and H-T2DMs (0.80, 0.58-1.04) than N-T2DMs (0.20, -0.17 to 0.54, P < 0.05), but similar between controls and N-T2DMs. BP-adjusted carotid diameters in all T2DM were significantly greater compared with controls and hypertensive patients. Conclusion: Higher BP increased wall viscosity, hysteresis and relative difference between systolic and diastolic distensibility across groups. Carotid diameters were increased in all T2DMs, more in H-T2DM, probably altering BP-flow dynamics in T2DM.
2021
Giudici, Alessandro; Palombo, Carlo; Kozakova, Michaela; Morizzo, Carmela; Penno, Giuseppe; Jamagidze, Giuli; Della Latta, Daniele; Chiappino, Dante; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Khir, Ashraf W
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1109594
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