In nitrate vulnerable zones (NVZs), site-specific techniques are needed to match N availability with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Desf.) requirements. Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers can improve efficient N supply and reduce leaching, contributing to sustainable agriculture. Two-year field experiments were carried out at two Mediterranean nitrate vulnerable zones in Central Italy (Pisa and Arezzo) to study the effects of nitrogen sources, timings, and application rates. The trial compared: (i) three N sources for the first topdressing application (urea, methylene urea, and urea with the nitrification inhibitor DMPP); (ii) two stages for the first topdressing N application (1st tiller visible—BBCH21 and 1st node detectable—BBCH31); (iii) two N rates: one based on the crop N requirements (Optimal—NO), the other based on action programme prescriptions of the two NVZs (Action Programme—NAP). Grain yield and yield components were determined, together with N uptake. The results showed that: (i) grain and biomass production were reduced with NAP at both locations; (ii) urea performed better than slow-release fertilizers; (iii) the best application time depended on the N source and location: in Pisa, enhanced-efficiency fertilizers achieved higher yields when applied earliest, while for urea the opposite was true; in Arezzo different N fertilizers showed similar performances between the two application timings. Different behaviors of topdress-ing fertilizers at the two localities could be related to the diverse patterns of temperatures and rainfall. Thus, optimal fertilization strategies would seem to vary according to environmental conditions.

Durum wheat yield and N uptake as affected by N source, timing, and rate in two mediterranean environments

Pampana S.
Primo
;
Mariotti M.
Ultimo
2021-01-01

Abstract

In nitrate vulnerable zones (NVZs), site-specific techniques are needed to match N availability with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Desf.) requirements. Enhanced-efficiency fertilizers can improve efficient N supply and reduce leaching, contributing to sustainable agriculture. Two-year field experiments were carried out at two Mediterranean nitrate vulnerable zones in Central Italy (Pisa and Arezzo) to study the effects of nitrogen sources, timings, and application rates. The trial compared: (i) three N sources for the first topdressing application (urea, methylene urea, and urea with the nitrification inhibitor DMPP); (ii) two stages for the first topdressing N application (1st tiller visible—BBCH21 and 1st node detectable—BBCH31); (iii) two N rates: one based on the crop N requirements (Optimal—NO), the other based on action programme prescriptions of the two NVZs (Action Programme—NAP). Grain yield and yield components were determined, together with N uptake. The results showed that: (i) grain and biomass production were reduced with NAP at both locations; (ii) urea performed better than slow-release fertilizers; (iii) the best application time depended on the N source and location: in Pisa, enhanced-efficiency fertilizers achieved higher yields when applied earliest, while for urea the opposite was true; in Arezzo different N fertilizers showed similar performances between the two application timings. Different behaviors of topdress-ing fertilizers at the two localities could be related to the diverse patterns of temperatures and rainfall. Thus, optimal fertilization strategies would seem to vary according to environmental conditions.
2021
Pampana, S.; Mariotti, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1114558
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