Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of ubiquitous metal enzymes catalyzing the reversible conversion of CO2 and H2O to HCO3- with the release of a proton. They play an important role in pH regulation and in the balance of body fluids and are involved in several functions such as homeostasis regulation and cellular respiration. For these reasons, they have been studied as targets for the development of agents for treating several pathologies. CA inhibitors have been used in therapy for a long time, especially as diuretics and for the treatment of glaucoma, and are being investigated for application in other pathologies including obesity, cancer, and epilepsy. On the contrary, CAs activators are still poorly studied. They are proposed to act as additional (other than histidine) proton shuttles in the rate-limiting step of the CA catalytic cycle, which is the generation of the active hydroxylated enzyme. Recent studies highlight the involvement of CAs activation in brain processes essential for the transmission of neuronal signals, suggesting CAs activation might represent a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other conditions characterized by memory impairment and cognitive problems. Actually, some compounds able to activate CAs have been identified and proposed to potentially resolve problems related to neurodegeneration. This review reports on the primary literature regarding the potential of CA activators for treating neurodegeneration-related diseases.

Carbonic Anhydrase Activators for Neurodegeneration: An Overview

Poggetti V.
Primo
;
Salerno S.
Secondo
;
Barresi E.;Da Settimo F.
Penultimo
;
Taliani S.
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a family of ubiquitous metal enzymes catalyzing the reversible conversion of CO2 and H2O to HCO3- with the release of a proton. They play an important role in pH regulation and in the balance of body fluids and are involved in several functions such as homeostasis regulation and cellular respiration. For these reasons, they have been studied as targets for the development of agents for treating several pathologies. CA inhibitors have been used in therapy for a long time, especially as diuretics and for the treatment of glaucoma, and are being investigated for application in other pathologies including obesity, cancer, and epilepsy. On the contrary, CAs activators are still poorly studied. They are proposed to act as additional (other than histidine) proton shuttles in the rate-limiting step of the CA catalytic cycle, which is the generation of the active hydroxylated enzyme. Recent studies highlight the involvement of CAs activation in brain processes essential for the transmission of neuronal signals, suggesting CAs activation might represent a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other conditions characterized by memory impairment and cognitive problems. Actually, some compounds able to activate CAs have been identified and proposed to potentially resolve problems related to neurodegeneration. This review reports on the primary literature regarding the potential of CA activators for treating neurodegeneration-related diseases.
2022
Poggetti, V.; Salerno, S.; Baglini, E.; Barresi, E.; Da Settimo, F.; Taliani, S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1141711
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