Since the beginning of 2020, the outbreak of a new strain of Coronavirus has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths and put under heavy pressure the world's most advanced healthcare systems. In order to slow down the spread of the disease, known as COVID-19, and reduce the stress on healthcare structures and intensive care units, many governments have taken drastic and unprecedented measures, such as closure of schools, shops and entire industries, and enforced drastic social distancing regulations, including local and national lockdowns. To effectively address such pandemics in a systematic and informed manner in the future, it is of fundamental importance to develop mathematical models and algorithms to predict the evolution of the spread of the disease to support policy and decision making at the governmental level. There is a strong literature describing the application of Bayesian sequential and adaptive dynamic estimation to surveillance (tracking and prediction) of objects such as missiles and ships; and in this article, we transfer some of its key lessons to epidemiology. We show that we can reliably estimate and forecast the evolution of the infections from daily - and possibly uncertain - publicly available information provided by authorities, e.g., daily numbers of infected and recovered individuals. The proposed method is able to estimate infection and recovery parameters, and to track and predict the epidemiological curve with good accuracy when applied to real data from Lombardia region in Italy, and from the USA. In these scenarios, the mean absolute percentage error computed after the lockdown is on average below 5 % when the forecast is at 7 days, and below 10 % when the forecast horizon is 14 days.

Adaptive Bayesian learning and forecasting of epidemic evolution-data analysis of the COVID-19 outbreak

Braca P.;Millefiori L. M.;
2020

Abstract

Since the beginning of 2020, the outbreak of a new strain of Coronavirus has caused hundreds of thousands of deaths and put under heavy pressure the world's most advanced healthcare systems. In order to slow down the spread of the disease, known as COVID-19, and reduce the stress on healthcare structures and intensive care units, many governments have taken drastic and unprecedented measures, such as closure of schools, shops and entire industries, and enforced drastic social distancing regulations, including local and national lockdowns. To effectively address such pandemics in a systematic and informed manner in the future, it is of fundamental importance to develop mathematical models and algorithms to predict the evolution of the spread of the disease to support policy and decision making at the governmental level. There is a strong literature describing the application of Bayesian sequential and adaptive dynamic estimation to surveillance (tracking and prediction) of objects such as missiles and ships; and in this article, we transfer some of its key lessons to epidemiology. We show that we can reliably estimate and forecast the evolution of the infections from daily - and possibly uncertain - publicly available information provided by authorities, e.g., daily numbers of infected and recovered individuals. The proposed method is able to estimate infection and recovery parameters, and to track and predict the epidemiological curve with good accuracy when applied to real data from Lombardia region in Italy, and from the USA. In these scenarios, the mean absolute percentage error computed after the lockdown is on average below 5 % when the forecast is at 7 days, and below 10 % when the forecast horizon is 14 days.
Gaglione, D.; Braca, P.; Millefiori, L. M.; Soldi, G.; Forti, N.; Marano, S.; Willett, P. K.; Pattipati, K. R.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/1143981
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