Background and aims: Severe asthma may require the prescription of one of the biologic drugs currently available, using surrogate markers of airway inflammation (serum IgE levels and allergic sensitization for anti-IgE, or blood eosinophils for anti-IL5/IL5R). Our objective: to assess upper and lower airway inflammation in severe asthmatics divided according to the eligibility criteria for one of the target biologic treatments. Methods: We selected 91 severe asthmatics, uncontrolled despite high-dose ICS-LABA, and followed for >6 months with optimization of asthma treatment. Patients underwent clinical, functional and biological assessment, including induced sputum and nasal cytology. They were then clustered according to the eligibility criteria for omalizumab or mepolizumab/benralizumab. Results: Four clusters were selected: A (eligible for omalizumab, n = 23), AB (both omalizumab and mepolizumab, n = 26), B (mepolizumab, n = 22) and C (non-eligible for both omalizumab and mepolizumab, n = 20). There was no difference among clusters for asthma control (Asthma Control Test and Asthma Control Questionnaire 7), pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s, serum IgE and fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels. Sputum eosinophils were numerically higher in clusters AB and B, in agreement with the higher levels of blood eosinophils. Allergic rhinitis was more frequent in clusters A and AB, while chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps prevalence increased progressively from A to C. Eosinophils in nasal cytology were higher in clusters AB, B and C. Conclusion: Eosinophilic upper and lower airway inflammation is present in the large majority of severe asthmatics, independently from the prescription criteria for the currently available biologics, and might suggest the use of anti-IL5/IL5R or anti IL4/13 also in patients without blood eosinophilia. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.

Upper and lower airway inflammation in severe asthmatics: a guide for a precision biologic treatment

Cianchetti S.;Miccoli M.;Puxeddu I.;Celi A.;Paggiaro P.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Background and aims: Severe asthma may require the prescription of one of the biologic drugs currently available, using surrogate markers of airway inflammation (serum IgE levels and allergic sensitization for anti-IgE, or blood eosinophils for anti-IL5/IL5R). Our objective: to assess upper and lower airway inflammation in severe asthmatics divided according to the eligibility criteria for one of the target biologic treatments. Methods: We selected 91 severe asthmatics, uncontrolled despite high-dose ICS-LABA, and followed for >6 months with optimization of asthma treatment. Patients underwent clinical, functional and biological assessment, including induced sputum and nasal cytology. They were then clustered according to the eligibility criteria for omalizumab or mepolizumab/benralizumab. Results: Four clusters were selected: A (eligible for omalizumab, n = 23), AB (both omalizumab and mepolizumab, n = 26), B (mepolizumab, n = 22) and C (non-eligible for both omalizumab and mepolizumab, n = 20). There was no difference among clusters for asthma control (Asthma Control Test and Asthma Control Questionnaire 7), pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s, serum IgE and fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels. Sputum eosinophils were numerically higher in clusters AB and B, in agreement with the higher levels of blood eosinophils. Allergic rhinitis was more frequent in clusters A and AB, while chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps prevalence increased progressively from A to C. Eosinophils in nasal cytology were higher in clusters AB, B and C. Conclusion: Eosinophilic upper and lower airway inflammation is present in the large majority of severe asthmatics, independently from the prescription criteria for the currently available biologics, and might suggest the use of anti-IL5/IL5R or anti IL4/13 also in patients without blood eosinophilia. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.
2020
Latorre, M.; Bacci, E.; Seccia, V.; Bartoli, M. L.; Cardini, C.; Cianchetti, S.; Cristofani, L.; Di Franco, A.; Miccoli, M.; Puxeddu, I.; Celi, A.; Paggiaro, P.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1151521
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