Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with high recurrence rates, high incidence of distant metastases, and poor overall survival (OS). Taxane and anthracycline-containing chemotherapy (CT) is currently the main systemic treatment option for TNBC, while platinum-based chemotherapy showed promising results in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. An early arising of intrinsic or acquired CT resistance is common and represents the main hurdle for successful TNBC treatment. Numerous mechanisms were uncovered that can lead to the development of chemoresistance. These include cancer stem cells (CSCs) induction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, hypoxia and avoidance of apoptosis, single factors such as tyrosine kinase receptors (EGFR, IGFR1), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10), and a few pathological molecular pathways. Some biomarkers capable of predicting resistance to specific chemotherapeutic agents were identified and are expected to be validated in future studies for a more accurate selection of drugs to be employed and for a more tailored approach, both in neoadjuvant and advanced settings. Recently, based on specific biomarkers, some therapies were tailored to TNBC subsets and became available in clinical practice: olaparib and talazoparib for BRCA1/2 germline mutation carriers larotrectinib and entrectinib for neurotrophic tropomyosin receptor kinase (NTRK) gene fusion carriers, and anti-trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (Trop2) antibody drug conjugate therapy for heavily pretreated metastatic TNBC (mTNBC). Further therapies targeting some pathologic molecular pathways, apoptosis, miRNAS, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), and androgen receptor (AR) are under investigation. Among them, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and EGFR inhibitors as well as antiandrogens showed promising results and are under evaluation in Phase II/III clinical trials. Emerging therapies allow to select specific antiblastics that alone or by integrating the conventional therapeutic approach may overcome/hinder chemoresistance.

Molecular Mechanisms, Biomarkers and Emerging Therapies for Chemotherapy Resistant TNBC

Scatena, Cristian;Bargagna, Irene;Lorenzini, Giulia;Nicolini, Andrea
2022-01-01

Abstract

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with high recurrence rates, high incidence of distant metastases, and poor overall survival (OS). Taxane and anthracycline-containing chemotherapy (CT) is currently the main systemic treatment option for TNBC, while platinum-based chemotherapy showed promising results in the neoadjuvant and metastatic settings. An early arising of intrinsic or acquired CT resistance is common and represents the main hurdle for successful TNBC treatment. Numerous mechanisms were uncovered that can lead to the development of chemoresistance. These include cancer stem cells (CSCs) induction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, hypoxia and avoidance of apoptosis, single factors such as tyrosine kinase receptors (EGFR, IGFR1), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10), and a few pathological molecular pathways. Some biomarkers capable of predicting resistance to specific chemotherapeutic agents were identified and are expected to be validated in future studies for a more accurate selection of drugs to be employed and for a more tailored approach, both in neoadjuvant and advanced settings. Recently, based on specific biomarkers, some therapies were tailored to TNBC subsets and became available in clinical practice: olaparib and talazoparib for BRCA1/2 germline mutation carriers larotrectinib and entrectinib for neurotrophic tropomyosin receptor kinase (NTRK) gene fusion carriers, and anti-trophoblast cell surface antigen 2 (Trop2) antibody drug conjugate therapy for heavily pretreated metastatic TNBC (mTNBC). Further therapies targeting some pathologic molecular pathways, apoptosis, miRNAS, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), and androgen receptor (AR) are under investigation. Among them, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and EGFR inhibitors as well as antiandrogens showed promising results and are under evaluation in Phase II/III clinical trials. Emerging therapies allow to select specific antiblastics that alone or by integrating the conventional therapeutic approach may overcome/hinder chemoresistance.
2022
Ferrari, Paola; Scatena, Cristian; Ghilli, Matteo; Bargagna, Irene; Lorenzini, Giulia; Nicolini, Andrea
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1161882
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