Background Joubert syndrome (JS) is a neurodevelopmental ciliopathy characterised by a distinctive mid-hindbrain malformation, the 'molar tooth sign'. Over 40 JS-associated genes are known, accounting for two-thirds of cases.Methods While most variants are novel or extremely rare, we report on 11 recurring variants in seven genes, including three known 'founder variants' in the Ashkenazi Jewish, Hutterite and Finnish populations. We evaluated variant frequencies in similar to 550 European patients with JS and compared them with controls (>15 000 Italian plus gnomAD), and with an independent cohort of similar to 600 JS probands from the USA.Results All variants were markedly enriched in the European JS cohort compared with controls. When comparing allele frequencies in the two JS cohorts, the Ashkenazim founder variant (TMEM216 c.218G>T) was significantly enriched in American compared with European patients with JS, while MKS1 c.1476T>G was about 10 times more frequent among European JS. Frequencies of other variants were comparable in the two cohorts. Genotyping of several markers identified four novel European founder haplotypes. Two recurrent variants (MKS1 c.1476T>G and KIAA0586 c.428delG), have been detected in homozygosity in unaffected individuals, suggesting they could act as hypomorphic variants. However, while fibroblasts from a MKS1 c.1476T>G healthy homozygote showed impaired ability to form primary cilia and mildly reduced ciliary length, ciliary parameters were normal in cells from a KIAA0586 c.428delG healthy homozygote.Conclusion This study contributes to understand the complex genetic landscape of JS, explain its variable prevalence in distinct geographical areas and characterise two recurrent hypomorphic variants.

Recurrent, founder and hypomorphic variants contribute to the genetic landscape of Joubert syndrome

Battini, Roberta
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background Joubert syndrome (JS) is a neurodevelopmental ciliopathy characterised by a distinctive mid-hindbrain malformation, the 'molar tooth sign'. Over 40 JS-associated genes are known, accounting for two-thirds of cases.Methods While most variants are novel or extremely rare, we report on 11 recurring variants in seven genes, including three known 'founder variants' in the Ashkenazi Jewish, Hutterite and Finnish populations. We evaluated variant frequencies in similar to 550 European patients with JS and compared them with controls (>15 000 Italian plus gnomAD), and with an independent cohort of similar to 600 JS probands from the USA.Results All variants were markedly enriched in the European JS cohort compared with controls. When comparing allele frequencies in the two JS cohorts, the Ashkenazim founder variant (TMEM216 c.218G>T) was significantly enriched in American compared with European patients with JS, while MKS1 c.1476T>G was about 10 times more frequent among European JS. Frequencies of other variants were comparable in the two cohorts. Genotyping of several markers identified four novel European founder haplotypes. Two recurrent variants (MKS1 c.1476T>G and KIAA0586 c.428delG), have been detected in homozygosity in unaffected individuals, suggesting they could act as hypomorphic variants. However, while fibroblasts from a MKS1 c.1476T>G healthy homozygote showed impaired ability to form primary cilia and mildly reduced ciliary length, ciliary parameters were normal in cells from a KIAA0586 c.428delG healthy homozygote.Conclusion This study contributes to understand the complex genetic landscape of JS, explain its variable prevalence in distinct geographical areas and characterise two recurrent hypomorphic variants.
2023
Serpieri, Valentina; Mortarini, Giulia; Loucks, Hailey; Biagini, Tommaso; Micalizzi, Alessia; Palmieri, Ilaria; Dempsey, Jennifer C; D'Abrusco, Fulvio; Mazzotta, Concetta; Battini, Roberta; Bertini, Enrico Silvio; Boltshauser, Eugen; Borgatti, Renato; Brockmann, Knut; D'Arrigo, Stefano; Nardocci, Nardo; Fischetto, Rita; Agolini, Emanuele; Novelli, Antonio; Romano, Alfonso; Romaniello, Romina; Stanzial, Franco; Signorini, Sabrina; Strisciuglio, Pietro; Gana, Simone; Mazza, Tommaso; Doherty, Dan; Valente, Enza Maria
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1170047
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