: Neurodegenerative disease-associated microglia commonly exhibit harmful cholesterol accumulation that impairs their ability to resolve the neuroinflammatory response, contributing to disease onset and progression. Neurosteroids, whose levels have been often found significantly altered in brain diseases, are the most potent endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules exerting beneficial effects on activities of brain cells, including microglia. For the first time, the impact of neurosteroidogenesis on cholesterol homeostasis for the immune surveillance phenotype maintenance was investigated in a human microglia in vitro model. To enhance and inhibit neurosteroidogenesis, pharmacological stimulation and knock-down of 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO), which is involved in the neurosteroidogenesis rate-limiting step, were used as experimental approaches, respectively. The obtained results point to an essential autocrine control of neurosteroidogenesis in orchestrating cholesterol trafficking in human microglia. TSPO pharmacological stimulation ensured cholesterol turnover by strengthening cholesterol efflux systems and preserving healthy immune surveillant phenotype. Conversely, TSPO knock-down induced an impairment of the controlled interplay among cholesterol synthesis, efflux, and metabolism mechanisms, leading to an excessive cholesterol accumulation and acquisition of a chronically activated dysfunctional phenotype. In this model, the exogenous neurosteroid administration restored proper the cholesterol clearance. The TSPO ability in promoting native neurosteroidogenesis opens the way to restore cholesterol homeostasis, and thus to maintain microglia proper functionality for the treatment of neuroinflammation-related brain diseases.

The human microglial surveillant phenotype is preserved by de novo neurosteroidogenesis through the control of cholesterol homeostasis: Crucial role of 18 kDa Translocator Protein

Angeloni, Elisa
Primo
;
Germelli, Lorenzo
Secondo
;
Marchetti, Laura;Da Pozzo, Eleonora
;
Tremolanti, Chiara;Baglini, Emma;Taliani, Sabrina;Da Settimo, Federico;Martini, Claudia
Penultimo
;
Costa, Barbara
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

: Neurodegenerative disease-associated microglia commonly exhibit harmful cholesterol accumulation that impairs their ability to resolve the neuroinflammatory response, contributing to disease onset and progression. Neurosteroids, whose levels have been often found significantly altered in brain diseases, are the most potent endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules exerting beneficial effects on activities of brain cells, including microglia. For the first time, the impact of neurosteroidogenesis on cholesterol homeostasis for the immune surveillance phenotype maintenance was investigated in a human microglia in vitro model. To enhance and inhibit neurosteroidogenesis, pharmacological stimulation and knock-down of 18 kDa Translocator Protein (TSPO), which is involved in the neurosteroidogenesis rate-limiting step, were used as experimental approaches, respectively. The obtained results point to an essential autocrine control of neurosteroidogenesis in orchestrating cholesterol trafficking in human microglia. TSPO pharmacological stimulation ensured cholesterol turnover by strengthening cholesterol efflux systems and preserving healthy immune surveillant phenotype. Conversely, TSPO knock-down induced an impairment of the controlled interplay among cholesterol synthesis, efflux, and metabolism mechanisms, leading to an excessive cholesterol accumulation and acquisition of a chronically activated dysfunctional phenotype. In this model, the exogenous neurosteroid administration restored proper the cholesterol clearance. The TSPO ability in promoting native neurosteroidogenesis opens the way to restore cholesterol homeostasis, and thus to maintain microglia proper functionality for the treatment of neuroinflammation-related brain diseases.
2023
Angeloni, Elisa; Germelli, Lorenzo; Marchetti, Laura; Da Pozzo, Eleonora; Tremolanti, Chiara; Wetzel, Christian H; Baglini, Emma; Taliani, Sabrina; Da Settimo, Federico; Martini, Claudia; Costa, Barbara
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1175905
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