Within the existing pheromone-based strategies for Lobesia botrana monitoring and management, mating disruption appears to be the most studied and deployed in wine-growing contexts worldwide. The effectiveness of this strategy led to many efforts to improve it, relying upon new available technologies. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a novel active pheromone emitter (product code: Isonet((R)) L MISTERX843) for L. botrana mating disruption, testing it at three different densities (i.e., 2, 3 and 4 units/ha). The aerosol emitter was evaluated in two wine-growing contexts, where it significantly reduced the L. botrana infestation when compared to vineyards not managed with mating disruption. The aerosol efficacy performances were comparable to those obtained with passive dispensers (Isonet((R)) L TT) and another active dispenser (Checkmate((R)) Puffer((R)) LB) already on the market. Overall, this novel aerosol device ensures the high effectiveness of the mating disruption program. On the other hand, extra care should be given for their deployment in the field, considering many factors such as the orography and shape of the vineyard as well as the dominant winds.Despite the great amount of information on the European Grapevine Moth (EGVM), Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the effective strategies available for its management, this moth remains the main key pest damaging grapevines in the Mediterranean and Central Europe wine-growing areas. Synthesizing and manipulating its sex pheromone components fostered the development of new dispensers to boost the effectiveness and sustainability of mating disruption (MD) programs. Recent MD research has highlighted that the effectiveness of aerosol emitters is comparable to that of passive dispensers when applied in large, uniform sites such as Spanish vineyards. However, aerosol emitters that are equally effective in geographical areas characterized by small-sized vineyards, typical of many Italian regions, have not received enough research attention. To face this challenge, herein the experimental aerosol emitter (product code: Isonet((R)) L MISTERX843) was tested at three different application rates (i.e., 2, 3 and 4 units/ha) in three study sites, two in Tuscany (Central Italy in 2017 and 2018) and one in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy in 2017), respectively, for a total of five trials. To assess the efficacy of this novel MD aerosol emitter, three different application densities were compared with an untreated control and two grower's standards. The latter were represented by passive (Isonet((R)) L TT) and active (Checkmate((R)) Puffer((R)) LB) release dispensers, already on the market for EGVM MD and applied at, respectively, 200-300 and 2.5-4 units/ha. MD carried out with Isonet((R)) L MISTERX843 led to zero catches of males in the pheromone traps. They also allowed for a significant reduction in the number of infested flower clusters and bunches, as well as in the number of nests per flowers cluster/bunch, if compared to the untreated control. As a general trend, MD effectiveness was fully comparable, or even better, if compared to the grower's standard. In conclusion, our research pointed out that the Isonet((R)) L MISTERX843 can allow for effective EGVM management in small-sized Italian vineyards. Lastly, our economic evaluation showed that the MD whole cost per hectare using active or passive release devices was comparable.
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