Simple SummaryExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted continuously from different cell types. The composition of EVs, like proteins, nucleic acids and lipids is linked with the cells of origin and they are involved in cell-cell communication. The presence of EVs in the majority of the body fluids makes them attractive to investigate and define their role in physiological and in pathological processes. This review is focused on EVs with dimensions between 30 and 150 nm like exosomes (EEVs). We described the biogenesis of EEVs, methods for isolation and their role in cancer as innovative diagnostic tools and new drug delivery systems.Nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) with dimensions ranging from 100 to 1000 nm are continuously secreted from different cells in their extracellular environment. They are able to encapsulate and transfer various biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, that play an essential role in cell-cell communication, reflecting a novel method of extracellular cross-talk. Since EVs are present in large amounts in most bodily fluids, challengeable hypotheses are analyzed to unlock their potential roles. Here, we review EVs by discussing their specific characteristics (structure, formation, composition, and isolation methods), focusing on their key role in cell biology. Furthermore, this review will summarize the biomedical applications of EVs, in particular those between 30 and 150 nm (like exosomes), as next-generation diagnostic tools in liquid biopsy for cancer and as novel drug delivery vehicles.

Cancer Extracellular Vesicles: Next-Generation Diagnostic and Drug Delivery Nanotools

Tuccinardi, Tiziano;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Simple SummaryExtracellular vesicles (EVs) are secreted continuously from different cell types. The composition of EVs, like proteins, nucleic acids and lipids is linked with the cells of origin and they are involved in cell-cell communication. The presence of EVs in the majority of the body fluids makes them attractive to investigate and define their role in physiological and in pathological processes. This review is focused on EVs with dimensions between 30 and 150 nm like exosomes (EEVs). We described the biogenesis of EEVs, methods for isolation and their role in cancer as innovative diagnostic tools and new drug delivery systems.Nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) with dimensions ranging from 100 to 1000 nm are continuously secreted from different cells in their extracellular environment. They are able to encapsulate and transfer various biomolecules, such as nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids, that play an essential role in cell-cell communication, reflecting a novel method of extracellular cross-talk. Since EVs are present in large amounts in most bodily fluids, challengeable hypotheses are analyzed to unlock their potential roles. Here, we review EVs by discussing their specific characteristics (structure, formation, composition, and isolation methods), focusing on their key role in cell biology. Furthermore, this review will summarize the biomedical applications of EVs, in particular those between 30 and 150 nm (like exosomes), as next-generation diagnostic tools in liquid biopsy for cancer and as novel drug delivery vehicles.
2020
Palazzolo, Stefano; Memeo, Lorenzo; Hadla, Mohamad; Duzagac, Fahriye; Steffan, Agostino; Perin, Tiziana; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Tuccinardi, Tiziano; Caligiuri, Isabella; Rizzolio, Flavio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1184654
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