Effects of the phytotoxic and widespread ozone (O₃) pollution may be species specific, but knowledge on Mediterranean conifer responses to long-term realistic exposure is still limited. We examined responses regarding to photosynthesis, needle biochemical stress markers and carbon and nitrogen (N) isotopes of two Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus pinea L.). Seedlings were grown in a Free-Air Controlled Exposure experiment with three levels of O₃ (ambient air, AA [38.7 p.p.b. as daily average]; 1.5 × AA and 2.0 × AA) during the growing season (May–October 2019). In P. halepensis, O₃ caused a significant decrease in the photosynthetic rate, which was mainly due to a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO₂. Isotopic analyses indicated a cumulative or memory effect of O₃ exposure on this species, as the negative effects were highlighted only in the late growing season in association with a reduced biochemical defense capacity. On the other hand, there was no clear effect of O₃ on photosynthesis in P. pinea. However, this species showed enhanced N allocation to leaves to compensate for reduced photosynthetic N- use efficiency. We conclude that functional responses to O₃ are different between the two species determining that P. halepensis with thin needles was relatively sensitive to O₃, while P. pinea with thicker needles was more resistant due to a potentially low O₃ load per unit mass of mesophyll cells, which may affect species-specific resilience in O₃-polluted Mediterranean pine forests.

Functional responses of two Mediterranean pine species in an ozone Free-Air Controlled Exposure (FACE) experiment

Lorenzo Cotrozzi
Secondo
;
Cristina Nali;Elisa Pellegrini;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Effects of the phytotoxic and widespread ozone (O₃) pollution may be species specific, but knowledge on Mediterranean conifer responses to long-term realistic exposure is still limited. We examined responses regarding to photosynthesis, needle biochemical stress markers and carbon and nitrogen (N) isotopes of two Mediterranean pine species (Pinus halepensis Mill. and Pinus pinea L.). Seedlings were grown in a Free-Air Controlled Exposure experiment with three levels of O₃ (ambient air, AA [38.7 p.p.b. as daily average]; 1.5 × AA and 2.0 × AA) during the growing season (May–October 2019). In P. halepensis, O₃ caused a significant decrease in the photosynthetic rate, which was mainly due to a reduction of both stomatal and mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO₂. Isotopic analyses indicated a cumulative or memory effect of O₃ exposure on this species, as the negative effects were highlighted only in the late growing season in association with a reduced biochemical defense capacity. On the other hand, there was no clear effect of O₃ on photosynthesis in P. pinea. However, this species showed enhanced N allocation to leaves to compensate for reduced photosynthetic N- use efficiency. We conclude that functional responses to O₃ are different between the two species determining that P. halepensis with thin needles was relatively sensitive to O₃, while P. pinea with thicker needles was more resistant due to a potentially low O₃ load per unit mass of mesophyll cells, which may affect species-specific resilience in O₃-polluted Mediterranean pine forests.
2023
Hoshika, Yasutomo; Cotrozzi, Lorenzo; Gavrichkova, Olga; Nali, Cristina; Pellegrini, Elisa; Scartazza, Andrea; Paoletti, Elena
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1198988
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