Minimum-lap-time planning (MLTP) problems, which entail finding optimal trajectories for race cars on racetracks, have received significant attention in the recent literature. They are commonly addressed as optimal control problems (OCPs) and are numerically discretized using direct collocation methods. Subsequently, they are solved as nonlinear programs (NLPs). The conventional approach to solving MLTP problems is serial, whereby the resulting NLP is solved all at once. However, for problems characterized by a large number of variables, distributed optimization algorithms, such as the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), may represent a viable option, especially when multicore CPU architectures are available. This study presents a consensus-based ADMM approach tailored to solving MLTP problems through a distributed optimization algorithm. The algorithm partitions the problem into smaller subproblems based on different sectors of a track, distributing them among multiple processors. ADMM is then used to ensure consensus among the distributed computational processes. In particular, here the term “consensus” denotes the requirement for each subproblem to achieve mutual agreement across the junction areas. The paper also outlines specific strategies leveraging domain knowledge to improve the convergence of the distributed algorithm. The ADMM approach is validated against the serial approach, and numerical results are presented for both single-lap and multilap scenarios. In both cases, the ADMM approach proves superior for problem dimensions of 70k+ variables compared to serial methods. In planning scenarios with complex vehicle models on long track horizons, i.e., for problems with 1M+ variables, the efficiency gain of the ADMM approach is substantial, and it becomes the only viable option to maintain computational times within acceptable limits.

A consensus-based alternating direction method of multipliers approach to parallelize large-scale minimum-lap-time problems

Bartali, L.;Grabovic, E.;Gabiccini, M.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Minimum-lap-time planning (MLTP) problems, which entail finding optimal trajectories for race cars on racetracks, have received significant attention in the recent literature. They are commonly addressed as optimal control problems (OCPs) and are numerically discretized using direct collocation methods. Subsequently, they are solved as nonlinear programs (NLPs). The conventional approach to solving MLTP problems is serial, whereby the resulting NLP is solved all at once. However, for problems characterized by a large number of variables, distributed optimization algorithms, such as the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM), may represent a viable option, especially when multicore CPU architectures are available. This study presents a consensus-based ADMM approach tailored to solving MLTP problems through a distributed optimization algorithm. The algorithm partitions the problem into smaller subproblems based on different sectors of a track, distributing them among multiple processors. ADMM is then used to ensure consensus among the distributed computational processes. In particular, here the term “consensus” denotes the requirement for each subproblem to achieve mutual agreement across the junction areas. The paper also outlines specific strategies leveraging domain knowledge to improve the convergence of the distributed algorithm. The ADMM approach is validated against the serial approach, and numerical results are presented for both single-lap and multilap scenarios. In both cases, the ADMM approach proves superior for problem dimensions of 70k+ variables compared to serial methods. In planning scenarios with complex vehicle models on long track horizons, i.e., for problems with 1M+ variables, the efficiency gain of the ADMM approach is substantial, and it becomes the only viable option to maintain computational times within acceptable limits.
2023
Bartali, L.; Grabovic, E.; Gabiccini, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1204830
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