: Objective.This study addresses a fundamental limitation of in-beam positron emission tomography (IB-PET) in proton therapy: the lack of direct anatomical representation in the images it produces. We aim to overcome this shortcoming by pioneering the application of deep learning techniques to create synthetic control CT images (sCT) from combining IB-PET and planning CT scan data.Approach.We conducted simulations involving six patients who underwent irradiation with proton beams. Leveraging the architecture of a visual transformer (ViT) neural network, we developed a model to generate sCT images of these patients using the planning CT scans and the inter-fractional simulated PET activity maps during irradiation. To evaluate the model's performance, a comparison was conducted between the sCT images produced by the ViT model and the authentic control CT images-serving as the benchmark.Main results.The structural similarity index was computed at a mean value across all patients of 0.91, while the mean absolute error measured 22 Hounsfield Units (HU). Root mean squared error and peak signal-to-noise ratio values were 56 HU and 30 dB, respectively. The Dice similarity coefficient exhibited a value of 0.98. These values are comparable to or exceed those found in the literature. More than 70% of the synthetic morphological changes were found to be geometrically compatible with the ones reported in the real control CT scan.Significance.Our study presents an innovative approach to surface the hidden anatomical information of IB-PET in proton therapy. Our ViT-based model successfully generates sCT images from inter-fractional PET data and planning CT scans. Our model's performance stands on par with existing models relying on input from cone beam CT or magnetic resonance imaging, which contain more anatomical information than activity maps.

Synthetic CT imaging for PET monitoring in proton therapy: a simulation study

Moglioni, Martina;Carra, Pietro
;
Belcari, Nicola;Berti, Andrea;Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina;Cerello, Piergiorgio;Kraan, Aafke Christine;Mazzoni, Enrico;Morrocchi, Matteo;Rosso, Valeria;Sbolgi, Francesca;Sportelli, Giancarlo
2024-01-01

Abstract

: Objective.This study addresses a fundamental limitation of in-beam positron emission tomography (IB-PET) in proton therapy: the lack of direct anatomical representation in the images it produces. We aim to overcome this shortcoming by pioneering the application of deep learning techniques to create synthetic control CT images (sCT) from combining IB-PET and planning CT scan data.Approach.We conducted simulations involving six patients who underwent irradiation with proton beams. Leveraging the architecture of a visual transformer (ViT) neural network, we developed a model to generate sCT images of these patients using the planning CT scans and the inter-fractional simulated PET activity maps during irradiation. To evaluate the model's performance, a comparison was conducted between the sCT images produced by the ViT model and the authentic control CT images-serving as the benchmark.Main results.The structural similarity index was computed at a mean value across all patients of 0.91, while the mean absolute error measured 22 Hounsfield Units (HU). Root mean squared error and peak signal-to-noise ratio values were 56 HU and 30 dB, respectively. The Dice similarity coefficient exhibited a value of 0.98. These values are comparable to or exceed those found in the literature. More than 70% of the synthetic morphological changes were found to be geometrically compatible with the ones reported in the real control CT scan.Significance.Our study presents an innovative approach to surface the hidden anatomical information of IB-PET in proton therapy. Our ViT-based model successfully generates sCT images from inter-fractional PET data and planning CT scans. Our model's performance stands on par with existing models relying on input from cone beam CT or magnetic resonance imaging, which contain more anatomical information than activity maps.
2024
Moglioni, Martina; Carra, Pietro; Arezzini, Silvia; Belcari, Nicola; Bersani, Davide; Berti, Andrea; Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Calderisi, Marco; Ceppa, Ilaria; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Ciocca, Mario; Ferrero, Veronica; Fiorina, Elisa; Kraan, Aafke Christine; Mazzoni, Enrico; Morrocchi, Matteo; Pennazio, Francesco; Retico, Alessandra; Rosso, Valeria; Sbolgi, Francesca; Vitolo, Viviana; Sportelli, Giancarlo
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/1234307
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 0
  • Scopus 0
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact