it was previously found that fenarimol, vinclozolin or acephate, three of the most used pesticides worldwide, provoked a marked perturbation of murine cytochrome P450 (CYP)-linked monooxygenases. Here, to more closely mimic human exposure, it was investigated whether different pesticide combinations administered i.p. in male Swiss Albino CD1 mice in single or repeated fashion (daily, for three consecutive days), affect CYP-dependent oxidations. The four simulated mixtures showed a complex pattern of CYP induction and suppression, especially after repeated injection. For example, while fenarimol alone was the most inducing agent - reaching a 79-fold increase over control in testosterone 2 alpha-hydroxylase - followed by vinclozolin and acephate, coadministration with the former markedly reduced induction. Coadministration with vinclozolin, determined various positive and negative modulations. An increase of CYP2B1/2 and CYP3A1/2-associated oxidases and a decrease of ethoxycoumarin metabolism was observed in the acephate and vinclozolin mixture. An equivalent or reduced CYP expression, if compared to double combinations, was seen using the complete mixture. Taken as a whole, the unpredictability of the recorded effects with simple mixtures, shrinks the misleading extrapolation performed on a single pesticide. If reproduced in human, such changes, altering either endogenous metabolism or biotransformation of ubiquitous toxins, might have public health implications.
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