Recently discovered archaeological and iconographical data have led to revise the chronology of the kingdoms of South Arabia in the first millennium BC. In particular, in the period when the kingdom of Qataban enjoyed political importance for the first time, and the demise of the Minaean kingdom are to be backdated to the second century BC. The chronology suggested here entails certain general historical data; the palaeographic evolution unfolded differently throughout the kingdom, while the hypothesis that the title of the mukarrib was taken on by the various south Arabian kings on reaching their moment of greatest power, pursuant on an agreement between the kingdoms, is proved false. In general, the obvious cultural homogeneity of the South Arabian kingdoms, even from the most ancient phase of their history, took shape during a long endogenous process inside Yemen in the proto-historic period and is not the result of a cultural dissemination phenomenon emanating from a single great centre of prestige.
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