PURPOSE: To study by ultrasounds cardiac morphology and function early after breath-hold diving in deep water in elite athletes. METHODS: Fifteen healthy male divers (age 28 +/- 3 years) were studied using Doppler-echocardiography, immediately before (basal condition, BC) and two minutes after breath-hold diving (40 meters, acute post-apnea condition, APAC). Each subject performed a series of three consecutive breath-hold dives (20-30 and 40 m depth). RESULTS: End-diastolic left ventricular (LV) diameter (EDD) and end-diastolic LV volume (EDV) increased significantly (p < 0.01). Stroke volume (SV), cardiac index (CI), septal and posterior systolic wall-thickening (SWT) also significantly increased after diving (p < 0.01). No wall motion abnormalities were detected, and wall motion score index was unchanged between BC and APAC. Doppler mitral E wave increased significantly (p < 0.01), whereas the A wave was unchanged. Systemic vascular resistance (SVR) decreased significantly after diving (p < 0.05). In the factor analysis, filtering out the absolute values smaller than 0.7 in the loading matrix, it resulted that factor I consists of EDV, posterior SWT, SV and CI, factor II of diastolic blood pressure, waves A and E and factor III of heart rate and SVR. CONCLUSIONS: Systo-diastolic functions were improved in the early period after deep breath-hold diving due to favorable changes in loading conditions relative to pre-diving, namely the recruitment of left ventricular preload reserve and the reduction in afterload.
|Autori:||PINGITORE A.; GEMIGNANI A.; MENICUCCI D.; PASSERA M.; FRASSI F.; MARABOTTI C.; BELARDINELLI A.; PIARULLI A.; L'ABBATE A.; BEDINI R.|
|Titolo:||Left ventricular changes early after breath-holding in deep water in elite divers|
|Anno del prodotto:||2010|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|