Agri-environmental schemes and cross-compliance are the two main components of the Common Agricultural Policy that address environmental issues. Under regulation 1698/2005, agri-environmental scheme design has been established in such a way as to use cross-compliance as the baseline against which prescriptions and payments are identified. In this framework, agri-environmental payments to farmers are justified only for the component of public goods produced (if any) above the cross-compliance prescription level. This constraint has become a major determinant of the design of agri-environmental schemes in all EU Member States in which both instruments are implemented. This paper investigates farmer participation, compliance choices and socially optimal level of monitoring when cross-compliance and agri-environmental schemes are jointly considered, and when information about compliance is asymmetrically distributed between farmers and the public regulator. The results show that the two policy instruments interact with each other, with agri-environmental payments actually providing incentives for cross-compliance, when the cross-compliance monitoring and sanction system does not guarantee full compliance. However, the numerical example in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) demonstrates that with the present combination of controls and sanctions, farmers have very little incentive to be compliant with both cross compliance and agri-environmental schemes. Hence, the results highlight that the monitoring in CC or in AES does not have the same effect on the farmers’ compliance. This underscores the need for further research in this field, particularly as provision of environmental goods becomes more important in the future Common Agricultural Policy.
|Autori:||BARTOLINI F.; GALLERANI V.; RAGGI M.; VIAGGI D.|
|Titolo:||Modelling the linkages between Cross-Compliance and agri-environmental Schemes under asymmetric information|
|Anno del prodotto:||2012|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1111/j.1477-9552.2012.00339.x|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|