Abstract Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We report here a case of severe BKV-associated hemorrhagic cystitis who did not respond to intravenous cidofovir. Overt hematuria successfully resolved after a few days on hyperbaric oxygen and intravesical instillations of cidofovir, while BK viruria dropped after a few weeks and remained low. We review the literature for therapeutic options in hemorrhagic cystitis and try to explain how hyperbaric oxygen stimulates mucosal repair in the urinary bladder.
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