Abstract An important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis is played by incretins, which are gut-derived hormones released in response to nutrient ingestion. In humans, the major incretin hormones are glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and together they fully account for the incretin effect (that is, higher insulin release in response to an oral glucose challenge compared to an equal intravenous glucose load). Studies have shown that GLP-1 and GIP levels and actions may be perturbed in disease states, and the loss of incretin effect is likely to contribute importantly to the postprandial hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes. However, the specific cause-effect relationship between disease and incretins is still unclear. This review focuses on several key studies elucidating the association of defective incretin action with obesity and T2DM and the effects of metformin and other anti-diabetic agents on the incretin system.

Physiology of incretins and loss of incretin effect in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

MARCHETTI, PIERO
2013

Abstract

Abstract An important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis is played by incretins, which are gut-derived hormones released in response to nutrient ingestion. In humans, the major incretin hormones are glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and together they fully account for the incretin effect (that is, higher insulin release in response to an oral glucose challenge compared to an equal intravenous glucose load). Studies have shown that GLP-1 and GIP levels and actions may be perturbed in disease states, and the loss of incretin effect is likely to contribute importantly to the postprandial hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes. However, the specific cause-effect relationship between disease and incretins is still unclear. This review focuses on several key studies elucidating the association of defective incretin action with obesity and T2DM and the effects of metformin and other anti-diabetic agents on the incretin system.
Opinto, G; Natalicchio, A; Marchetti, Piero
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/233940
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