A hydrogeological study was carried out on important fractured/karst aquifer systems located in the Versilia River basin (Tuscany, Italy), in order to optimize the groundwater resources management. The main aim was the individuation of the feeding areas of the most important springs by means of a multidisciplinary approach using geological, hydrogeological and geochemical-isotopic tools. Some hydrogeological sections were elaborated in order to define the geometry of the main hydrostructures and to individuate possible groundwater divides. The elaboration of geochemical data allowed at identifying 3 main chemical facies: Ca-HCO3, Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl. The first two highlight the interaction of water with limestone/dolostone and carbonate-evaporite rocks for a time sufficient to acquire these chemical compositions and to achieve saturation/supersaturation in calcite and dolomite. The Na-Cl groundwater shows low salinity and a composition similar to rainwater, indicating a circulation in rocks containing minerals not very reactive and/or short interaction time with carbonate rocks. These two main types of water-rock interaction are confirmed by the isotopic ratio δ13C: for the Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 types, δ13C value requires a significant contribution of carbon derived from dissolution of calcite, while for Na-Cl water, δ13C values are consistent with the addition of biogenic CO2 in rainwater. Stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) confirm that groundwaters have a meteoric origin and that the wide range of values essentially depends on the different average altitude of feeding zone. Comparing the geological and hydrogeological features with the results of the geochemical processing, it is reasonable to assume that: the Na-Cl springs are representative of the superficial circuits, with small feeding zones and very low residence times in aquifer; whereas the Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 springs are representative of relatively deep circuits developed in extensive aquifers with high permeability. The first type of springs was used to obtain the relationship between the δ18O ratio and the altitude of rainwater infiltration. Taking into account that they drain a small basin and considering the regulator effect of the aquifers, the isotopic composition of these springs are very similar to the annual average isotopic values of the local meteoric water. This relationship was used to evaluate the average altitude of the feeding area of the second type of springs. All these elements, and some tracer test results available in literature, allowed us to delimit the hydrogeological basins likely drained by the most important springs under study. In addition, for each hydrogeological system, a simplified water balance using meteorological data and the effective infiltration coefficients reported in the literature was performed, verifying that the delimited catchment areas are entirely consistent with the flow rate data of the springs.

A multidisciplinary approach in defining the hydrogeological model of the carbonate aquifer system in the Versilia River basin (Tuscany, Italy)

GIANNECCHINI, ROBERTO;ROSI, MAURO
2012

Abstract

A hydrogeological study was carried out on important fractured/karst aquifer systems located in the Versilia River basin (Tuscany, Italy), in order to optimize the groundwater resources management. The main aim was the individuation of the feeding areas of the most important springs by means of a multidisciplinary approach using geological, hydrogeological and geochemical-isotopic tools. Some hydrogeological sections were elaborated in order to define the geometry of the main hydrostructures and to individuate possible groundwater divides. The elaboration of geochemical data allowed at identifying 3 main chemical facies: Ca-HCO3, Ca-SO4 and Na-Cl. The first two highlight the interaction of water with limestone/dolostone and carbonate-evaporite rocks for a time sufficient to acquire these chemical compositions and to achieve saturation/supersaturation in calcite and dolomite. The Na-Cl groundwater shows low salinity and a composition similar to rainwater, indicating a circulation in rocks containing minerals not very reactive and/or short interaction time with carbonate rocks. These two main types of water-rock interaction are confirmed by the isotopic ratio δ13C: for the Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 types, δ13C value requires a significant contribution of carbon derived from dissolution of calcite, while for Na-Cl water, δ13C values are consistent with the addition of biogenic CO2 in rainwater. Stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H) confirm that groundwaters have a meteoric origin and that the wide range of values essentially depends on the different average altitude of feeding zone. Comparing the geological and hydrogeological features with the results of the geochemical processing, it is reasonable to assume that: the Na-Cl springs are representative of the superficial circuits, with small feeding zones and very low residence times in aquifer; whereas the Ca-HCO3 and Ca-SO4 springs are representative of relatively deep circuits developed in extensive aquifers with high permeability. The first type of springs was used to obtain the relationship between the δ18O ratio and the altitude of rainwater infiltration. Taking into account that they drain a small basin and considering the regulator effect of the aquifers, the isotopic composition of these springs are very similar to the annual average isotopic values of the local meteoric water. This relationship was used to evaluate the average altitude of the feeding area of the second type of springs. All these elements, and some tracer test results available in literature, allowed us to delimit the hydrogeological basins likely drained by the most important springs under study. In addition, for each hydrogeological system, a simplified water balance using meteorological data and the effective infiltration coefficients reported in the literature was performed, verifying that the delimited catchment areas are entirely consistent with the flow rate data of the springs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/246193
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