The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a unicellular fungus that can be cultured as a stable haploid or a stable diploid. Diploid cultures can be induced to undergo meiosis in a synchronous fashion under well-defined conditions. Consequently, yeasts can be used to study genetic effects both in mitotic and in meiotic cells. Haploid strains have been used to study the induction of point mutations. In addition to point mutation induction, diploid strains have been used for studying mitotic recombination, which is the expression of the cellular repair activities induced by inflicted damage. Chromosomal malsegregation in mitotic and meiotic cells can also be studied in appropriately marked strains. Yeast has a considerable potential for endogenous activation, provided the tests are performed with appropriate cells. Exogenous activation has been achieved with S9 rodent liver in test tubes as well as in the host-mediated assay, where cells are injected into rodents. Yeast cells can be recovered from various organs and tested for induced genetic effects. The most commonly used genetic end point has been mitotic recombination either as mitotic crossing-over or mitotic gene conversion. A number of different strains are used by different authors. This also applies to haploid strains used for monitoring induction of point mutations. Mitotic chromosome malsegregation has been studied mainly with strain D6 and meiotic malsegregation with strain DIS13. Data were available on tests with 492 chemicals, of which 249 were positive, as reported in 173 articles or reports. The genetic test/carcinogenicity accuracy was 0.74, based on the carcinogen listing established in the Gene-Tox Program. The yeast tests supplement the bacterial tests for detecting agents that act via radical formation, antibacterial drugs, and other chemicals interfering with chromosome segregation and recombination processes.
|Autori:||Zimmermann FK; von Borstel RC; von Halle ES; Parry JM; Siebert D; Zetterberg G; Barale R; Loprieno N|
|Titolo:||Testing of chemicals for genetic activity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a report of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Gene-Tox Program|
|Anno del prodotto:||1984|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/0165-1110(84)90017-4|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|