Spaceflights "environment" negatively affects sleep and its functions. Among the different causes promoting sleep alterations, such as circadian rhythms disruption and microgravity, stress is of great interest also for earth-based sleep medicine. This study aims to evaluate the relationships between stress related to social/environmental confinement and sleep in six healthy volunteers involved in the simulation of human flight to Mars (MARS500).Volunteers were sealed in a spaceship simulator for 105. days and studied at 5 specific time-points of the simulation period. Sleep EEG, urinary cortisol (24. h preceding sleep EEG recording) and subjectively perceived stress levels were collected. Cognitive abilities and emotional state were evaluated before and after the simulation. Sleep EEG parameters in the time (latency, duration) and frequency (power and hemispheric lateralization) domains were evaluated. Neither cognitive and emotional functions alterations nor abnormal stress levels were found. Higher cortisol levels were associated to: i) decrease of sleep duration, increase of arousals, and shortening of REM latency; ii) reduction of delta power and enhancement of sigma and beta in NREM N3; and iii) left lateralization of delta activity (NREM and REM) and right lateralization of beta activity (NREM).Stressful conditions, even with cortisol fluctuations in the normal range, alter sleep structure and sleep EEG spectral content, mirroring pathological conditions such as primary insomnia or insomnia associated to depression. Correlations between cortisol fluctuations and sleep changes suggest a covert risk for developing allostatic load, and thus the need to develop ad-hoc countermeasures for preventing sleep alterations in long lasting manned space missions.
|Autori:||Gemignani, Angelo; Andrea, Piarulli; Danilo, Menicucci; Marco, Laurino; Giuseppina, Rota; Francesca, Mastorci; Vadim, Gushin; Olga, Shevchenko; Erika, Garbella; Alessandro, Pingitore; Sebastiani, Laura; Massimo, Bergamasco; Antonio, L'Abbate; Paolo, Allegrini; Remo, Bedini|
|Titolo:||How stressful are 105days of isolation? Sleep EEG patterns and tonic cortisol in healthy volunteers simulating manned flight to Mars|
|Anno del prodotto:||2014|
|Digital Object Identifier (DOI):||10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2014.04.008|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|