Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provides bases for comprehensive understanding of Services provided by ecosystems, linking ecosystems and human well-being. As rural landscape is considered provider of multifunction services and is affected by a wide range of land uses several ecosystems are involved in developing an operative definition of landscape. Thus a common and comprehensive definition of landscape function, services provides, benefits and value are not enough developed. In fact, the concept of landscape function or services has been used as synonymous to ecosystem services Literature has highlighted that alternative land uses/rural area managements affect the ecosystem services provision, due to the trade-off, synergies and disservices in the provision of these services. The paper aims at exploring the linkages between ecosystem services and regarding rural landscape. To support this comprehensive assessment of the linkages between ecosystem services and landscape an empirical analysis to understand trade-off and synergises in ecosystem services provision by landscape are applied in Tuscany region. Results will contribute to provide empirical evidences and knowledge about the implementation of mechanism aimed to align provision of ecosystem services by rural landscape towards current and future needs.
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