The phytochemical composition of 19 saffron samples collected under different Moroccan environments is evaluated by Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The aim is to categorize Moroccan saffron volatiles and to highlight the impact of the environment on the chemical composition of the spice. This is the first research conducted on Moroccan saffron volatiles according to their geographical origin. A total of 57 volatile components have been identified. Differences in compound proportion and composition among the accessions were observed. The main chemical classes of volatiles identified were monoterpene hydrocarbons (6 to 42%), oxygenated monoterpenes (3 to 29%) and non-terpene derivatives. Only 14 compounds were found in common to all the accessions. The most important, in decreasing proportions, are safranal, 1, 8-cineole, 4-keto-isophorone, isophorone and α-pinene. 70% of the accessions analyzed contain β-isophorone, an isomere of isophorone which is a criterion of saffron high quality. Other components are identified in very few accessions, in lower amount, e.g., rose oxide (26% of accessions), allo-ocimene (13%) and piperitone (4%). A difference in the volatiles composition has been noticed consequently to accessions origin and drying mode. The cluster analysis based on Jaccard similarity and complete link method has identified five groups, at 75% of similarity. This study highlights the impact of the environment on saffron volatiles composition when the drying is done naturally, and this could be used as chemical fingerprinting for the authenticity of the product, according to its origin.

Phytochemical composition of Moroccan saffron accessions by headspace solid-phase microextraction

MELAI, BERNARDO;FLAMINI, GUIDO;PISTELLI, LUISA
2015

Abstract

The phytochemical composition of 19 saffron samples collected under different Moroccan environments is evaluated by Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The aim is to categorize Moroccan saffron volatiles and to highlight the impact of the environment on the chemical composition of the spice. This is the first research conducted on Moroccan saffron volatiles according to their geographical origin. A total of 57 volatile components have been identified. Differences in compound proportion and composition among the accessions were observed. The main chemical classes of volatiles identified were monoterpene hydrocarbons (6 to 42%), oxygenated monoterpenes (3 to 29%) and non-terpene derivatives. Only 14 compounds were found in common to all the accessions. The most important, in decreasing proportions, are safranal, 1, 8-cineole, 4-keto-isophorone, isophorone and α-pinene. 70% of the accessions analyzed contain β-isophorone, an isomere of isophorone which is a criterion of saffron high quality. Other components are identified in very few accessions, in lower amount, e.g., rose oxide (26% of accessions), allo-ocimene (13%) and piperitone (4%). A difference in the volatiles composition has been noticed consequently to accessions origin and drying mode. The cluster analysis based on Jaccard similarity and complete link method has identified five groups, at 75% of similarity. This study highlights the impact of the environment on saffron volatiles composition when the drying is done naturally, and this could be used as chemical fingerprinting for the authenticity of the product, according to its origin.
Lage, M.; Melai, Bernardo; Cioni, P. L.; Flamini, Guido; Gaboun, F.; Bakhy, K.; Zouhari, A.; Pistelli, Luisa
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/634065
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