An analytical procedure for the characterisation of polysaccharides and the identification of plant gums in old polychrome samples is described. The procedure is based on hydrolysis with 2 M trifluoroacetic acid assisted by microwaves (20 min, 120°C, 500 W), clean-up of the hydrolysate by an ion-exchange resin, and analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Using this method the hydrolysis time was reduced to 20 min and the chromatographic separation of seven monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose) and two uronic acids (galacturonic and glucuronic) was achieved in 40 min. The whole analytical procedure allows sugar determination in plant gums at picomole levels, with an average recovery of 72% with an RSD of 8% as tested on arabic gum. The analytical procedure was tested with several raw gums, watercolour samples and reference painting specimens prepared according to old recipes at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence (Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Italy). All the data collected expressed in relative sugar percentage contents were submitted to principal components analysis for gum identification: five groups were spatially separated and this enabled the identification of arabic, tragacanth, karaya, cherry+ghatty, and guar+locust bean gum. Wall painting samples from Macedonian tombs (Greece) of the 4th-3rd Centuries B.C., processed by the suggested method, showed the presence of a complex paint media mainly consisting of tragacanth and fruit tree gums. Moreover, starch had probably been added to plaster as highlighted by the presence of a huge amount of glucose.

Ion chromatography characterization of polysaccharides in ancient wall paintings

COLOMBINI, MARIA PERLA;CECCARINI, ALESSIO;
2002

Abstract

An analytical procedure for the characterisation of polysaccharides and the identification of plant gums in old polychrome samples is described. The procedure is based on hydrolysis with 2 M trifluoroacetic acid assisted by microwaves (20 min, 120°C, 500 W), clean-up of the hydrolysate by an ion-exchange resin, and analysis by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Using this method the hydrolysis time was reduced to 20 min and the chromatographic separation of seven monosaccharides (fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose) and two uronic acids (galacturonic and glucuronic) was achieved in 40 min. The whole analytical procedure allows sugar determination in plant gums at picomole levels, with an average recovery of 72% with an RSD of 8% as tested on arabic gum. The analytical procedure was tested with several raw gums, watercolour samples and reference painting specimens prepared according to old recipes at the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence (Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage, Italy). All the data collected expressed in relative sugar percentage contents were submitted to principal components analysis for gum identification: five groups were spatially separated and this enabled the identification of arabic, tragacanth, karaya, cherry+ghatty, and guar+locust bean gum. Wall painting samples from Macedonian tombs (Greece) of the 4th-3rd Centuries B.C., processed by the suggested method, showed the presence of a complex paint media mainly consisting of tragacanth and fruit tree gums. Moreover, starch had probably been added to plaster as highlighted by the presence of a huge amount of glucose.
Colombini, MARIA PERLA; Ceccarini, Alessio; Carmignani, Alessia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/69066
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