The condition-dependent sexual dimorphism model explains the evolution and maintenance of sexual dimorphism in traits targeted by sexual selection, and predicts that the magnitude of sexual dimorphism depends on the variability of individual condition, male traits being more variable than female corresponding traits. Most convincing examples concern insects, while studies among vertebrates are scanty because manipulating condition often is not possible, and the time to reach sexual maturity may be too long. Islands offer a unique opportunity to compare how the environment affects the expression of sexual dimorphism, since they represent ‘natural experimental sets’ in which different populations of the same species may experience alternative environmental constraints. We investigated the occurrence of context-dependent expression in sexual dimorphism of head shape in insular populations of the common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) inhabiting the Tuscan Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea). Alternative models were formulated: H0 assumes that the sexual dimorphism is uninfluenced by islands, H1 assumes the only effect of phylogeny, H2A and H2B account for the biogeography of the archipelago (island size and distance from the mainland), while H3 assumes island-specific effects on sexual dimorphism. Models were compared using Akaike’s information criterion adjusted for multivariate analyses. All hypotheses performed better than H0, but H3 largely outperformed all other alternative hypotheses, indicating that environmental features of islands play an additive effect to ontogenetic, biogeographic and genetic factors in defining variation in head shape sexual dimorphism. Our results support the hypothesis of a context-dependent sexual dimorphism in common wall lizards.
|Autori:||SACCHI, Roberto; MANGIACOTTI, Marco; SCALI, Stefano; SANNOLO, Marco; ZUFFI, Marco Alberto Luca; PELLITTERI-ROSA, Daniele; BELLATI, Adriana; GALEOTTI, Paolo; FASOLA, Mauro|
|Titolo:||Context-dependent expression of sexual dimorphism in island populations of the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis)|
|Anno del prodotto:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|