Objective Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the disease severity of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the following parameters of Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES): premature spillage, post-swallowing residue and aspiration. Methods We studied 202 patients (95 women and 107 men) with ALS; of these, 136 had spinal and 66 had bulbar onset. They were analyzed according to the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functioning Rating Scale (ALSFRS) and the b-ALSFRS subscale (bulbar scale). All subjects underwent FEES. Post-swallowing residue was classified into four classes (0–3); premature spillage and aspiration were considered either present or absent. Results Spearman's correlation test showed a highly significant correlation (p < 0.0001) between the value of ALSFRS and b-ALSFRS and the FEES parameters as the following: disease severity and dysphagia severity are closely related, both in spinal and bulbar onset, no matter what bolus texture was used. Spearman's Rho was more significant for post-swallowing residue, ≤−0.500 with all three consistencies (p < 0.0001) in spinal onset and −0.520 only with liquid bolus (p < 0.0001) in bulbar onset. Independent T-Test revealed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the mean ALSFRS and b-ALSFRS scores and the presence/absence of aspiration. For the premature spillage in spinal onset (ALSFRS), we found a statistically significant difference for all three bolus textures (p < 0.0001). Analysis of variance for the post-swallowing residue in spinal onset (ALSFRS) revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001) for most of the comparisons between groups for all three textures. For the premature spillage in bulbar onset (b-ALSFRS), we found a statistically significant difference for all three textures (p < 0.0001). Analysis of variance for the post-swallowing residue in bulbar onset (b-ALSFRS) showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001) for most of the comparisons between groups for all three textures. Kruskal–Wallis test showed a highly significant association between the classes of severity in bulbar forms and all the FEES parameters, no matter what type of bolus was administered (p < 0.0001), whereas a significant correlation in spinal forms only for post-swallowing residue with solid (p = 0.026) and semisolid (p = 0.031) boluses. Conclusion There is a highly significant relationship as the following between the FEES parameters and the disease severity assessed via ALSFRS and b-ALSFRS: classes of greater severity entail a greater deterioration of FEES parameters. FEES can be considered a good indicator of the dysphagia severity and a useful test for the follow-up of dysphagia in patients with ALS, whether of spinal or bulbar onset.

Dysphagia in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: relationshisp between disease progression and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

FATTORI, BRUNO;SICILIANO, GABRIELE;MANCINI, VALENTINA;BASTIANI, LUCA;BONGIOANNI, PAOLO;NACCI, ANDREA
2017

Abstract

Objective Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the disease severity of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and the following parameters of Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES): premature spillage, post-swallowing residue and aspiration. Methods We studied 202 patients (95 women and 107 men) with ALS; of these, 136 had spinal and 66 had bulbar onset. They were analyzed according to the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functioning Rating Scale (ALSFRS) and the b-ALSFRS subscale (bulbar scale). All subjects underwent FEES. Post-swallowing residue was classified into four classes (0–3); premature spillage and aspiration were considered either present or absent. Results Spearman's correlation test showed a highly significant correlation (p < 0.0001) between the value of ALSFRS and b-ALSFRS and the FEES parameters as the following: disease severity and dysphagia severity are closely related, both in spinal and bulbar onset, no matter what bolus texture was used. Spearman's Rho was more significant for post-swallowing residue, ≤−0.500 with all three consistencies (p < 0.0001) in spinal onset and −0.520 only with liquid bolus (p < 0.0001) in bulbar onset. Independent T-Test revealed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) between the mean ALSFRS and b-ALSFRS scores and the presence/absence of aspiration. For the premature spillage in spinal onset (ALSFRS), we found a statistically significant difference for all three bolus textures (p < 0.0001). Analysis of variance for the post-swallowing residue in spinal onset (ALSFRS) revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001) for most of the comparisons between groups for all three textures. For the premature spillage in bulbar onset (b-ALSFRS), we found a statistically significant difference for all three textures (p < 0.0001). Analysis of variance for the post-swallowing residue in bulbar onset (b-ALSFRS) showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.0001) for most of the comparisons between groups for all three textures. Kruskal–Wallis test showed a highly significant association between the classes of severity in bulbar forms and all the FEES parameters, no matter what type of bolus was administered (p < 0.0001), whereas a significant correlation in spinal forms only for post-swallowing residue with solid (p = 0.026) and semisolid (p = 0.031) boluses. Conclusion There is a highly significant relationship as the following between the FEES parameters and the disease severity assessed via ALSFRS and b-ALSFRS: classes of greater severity entail a greater deterioration of FEES parameters. FEES can be considered a good indicator of the dysphagia severity and a useful test for the follow-up of dysphagia in patients with ALS, whether of spinal or bulbar onset.
Fattori, Bruno; Siciliano, Gabriele; Mancini, Valentina; Bastiani, Luca; Bongioanni, Paolo; Calderazzo Ienco, E; Barillari, M. R; Romeo, S. O; Nacci, Andrea
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11568/811155
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