Olive fruits and oils contain an array of compounds that contribute to their sensory and nutritional properties. Phenolic compounds in virgin oil and olive-derived products have been proven to be highly beneficial for human health, eliciting increasing attention from the food industry and consumers. Although phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oil have been extensively investigated, allowing the identification of the main classes of metabolites and their accumulation patterns, knowledge of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulating phenolic metabolism remains scarce. We focused on the role of polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (PRX) and β-glucosidase (β-GLU) gene families and their enzyme activities in the accumulation of phenolic compounds during olive fruit development (35–146 days after full bloom), under either full irrigation (FI) or rain-fed (RF) conditions. The irrigation regime affected yield, maturation index, mesocarp oil content, fruit size, and pulp-to-pit ratio. Accumulation of fruit phenolics was higher in RF drupes than in FI ones. Members of each gene family were developmentally regulated, affected by water regime, and their transcript levels were correlated with the respective enzyme activities. During the early phase of drupe growth (35–43 days after full bloom), phenolic composition appeared to be linked to β-GLU and PRX activities, probably through their effects on oleuropein catabolism. Interestingly, a higher β-GLU activity was measured in immature RF drupes, as well as a higher content of the oleuropein derivate 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and verbascoside. Activity of PPO enzymes was slightly affected by the water status of trees during ripening (from 120 days after full bloom), but was not correlated with phenolics content. Overall, the main changes in phenolics content appeared soon after the supply of irrigation water and remained thereafter almost unchanged until maturity, despite fruit growth and the progressive decrease in pre-dawn leaf water potential. We suggest that enzymes involved in phenolic catabolism in the olive fruit have a differential sensitivity to soil water availability depending on fruit developmental stage.

The Role of Polyphenoloxidase, Peroxidase, and β-Glucosidase in Phenolics Accumulation in Olea europaea L. Fruits under Different Water Regimes

CARUSO, GIOVANNI;GUCCI, RICCARDO;
2017

Abstract

Olive fruits and oils contain an array of compounds that contribute to their sensory and nutritional properties. Phenolic compounds in virgin oil and olive-derived products have been proven to be highly beneficial for human health, eliciting increasing attention from the food industry and consumers. Although phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oil have been extensively investigated, allowing the identification of the main classes of metabolites and their accumulation patterns, knowledge of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms regulating phenolic metabolism remains scarce. We focused on the role of polyphenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (PRX) and β-glucosidase (β-GLU) gene families and their enzyme activities in the accumulation of phenolic compounds during olive fruit development (35–146 days after full bloom), under either full irrigation (FI) or rain-fed (RF) conditions. The irrigation regime affected yield, maturation index, mesocarp oil content, fruit size, and pulp-to-pit ratio. Accumulation of fruit phenolics was higher in RF drupes than in FI ones. Members of each gene family were developmentally regulated, affected by water regime, and their transcript levels were correlated with the respective enzyme activities. During the early phase of drupe growth (35–43 days after full bloom), phenolic composition appeared to be linked to β-GLU and PRX activities, probably through their effects on oleuropein catabolism. Interestingly, a higher β-GLU activity was measured in immature RF drupes, as well as a higher content of the oleuropein derivate 3,4-DHPEA-EDA and verbascoside. Activity of PPO enzymes was slightly affected by the water status of trees during ripening (from 120 days after full bloom), but was not correlated with phenolics content. Overall, the main changes in phenolics content appeared soon after the supply of irrigation water and remained thereafter almost unchanged until maturity, despite fruit growth and the progressive decrease in pre-dawn leaf water potential. We suggest that enzymes involved in phenolic catabolism in the olive fruit have a differential sensitivity to soil water availability depending on fruit developmental stage.
Cirilli, Marco; Caruso, Giovanni; Gennai, Clizia; Urbani, Stefania; Frioni, Eleonora; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Servili, Maurizio; Gucci, Riccardo; Poerio, Elia; Muleo, Rosario
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/854888
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