Background: Consumption of cocoa products has been related to health benefits including cardiovascular system. Several studies have assigned also to the extra virgin olive oil (EVO) as well as apples consumption beneficial effect on human health. Blood circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for vascular repair and maintenance of endothelial function and resulted reduced in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Purpose: This study examines the effects of EVO and apple-enriched dark chocolate intake on EPCs blood levels and endogenous metabolites in free living subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: In a randomized, single-masked, cross-over trial, 30 adults (51±9 years of age) with at least three cardiovascular risk factors (among smoke, dyslipidemia, hypertension and family history for cardiovascular disease), received a solid dark chocolate bar (40 g/day) containing 10% EVO and a solid dark chocolate bar containing 2.5% dry apples in random order over 28 days. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Urine samples were analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy for endogenous metabolites. Circulating EPCs (CD133+/KDR+/CD34+) levels by flow cytometry. Age, sex, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), glycemia and lipid profile were monitored in all subjects. Results: 26 volunteers (M/F 14/12) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed: a positive trend in HDL levels and a moderate decrease of blood pressure associated with EVO-dark chocolate consumption, whereas apple-dark chocolate decreased triglyceride levels, although not significantly. Interestingly, EVO-dark chocolate consumption induced a significant increase of circulating EPC levels compared to apples-dark chocolate consumption (174±99 vs 125±96, P<0.05). NMR data revealed a decrease of 2 metabolites involved in cardiovascular risk, linked with carnitine metabolism and hyppurate. Conclusion(s): Consumption of enriched dark chocolate resulted in modification of metabolism with potential long-term consequences on cardiovascular health within 4 weeks. However, only EVO-dark chocolate consumption results in improvement of endothelial function, associated with the increase of EPC circulating levels, probably due to the additive effect of EVO polyphenols.

Extra virgin olive oil and apples enriched-dark chocolate consumption and endothelial function: a randomized crossover trial in patients with cardiovascular risk factors

Di Stefano, R.
Primo
;
Felice, F.;Di Bello, V.;Domenici, V.;Cifelli, M.;Sebastiani, L.;Francini, A.;
2017

Abstract

Background: Consumption of cocoa products has been related to health benefits including cardiovascular system. Several studies have assigned also to the extra virgin olive oil (EVO) as well as apples consumption beneficial effect on human health. Blood circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for vascular repair and maintenance of endothelial function and resulted reduced in patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Purpose: This study examines the effects of EVO and apple-enriched dark chocolate intake on EPCs blood levels and endogenous metabolites in free living subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods: In a randomized, single-masked, cross-over trial, 30 adults (51±9 years of age) with at least three cardiovascular risk factors (among smoke, dyslipidemia, hypertension and family history for cardiovascular disease), received a solid dark chocolate bar (40 g/day) containing 10% EVO and a solid dark chocolate bar containing 2.5% dry apples in random order over 28 days. Urine and blood samples were collected at baseline and after the intervention. Urine samples were analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy for endogenous metabolites. Circulating EPCs (CD133+/KDR+/CD34+) levels by flow cytometry. Age, sex, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), glycemia and lipid profile were monitored in all subjects. Results: 26 volunteers (M/F 14/12) completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed: a positive trend in HDL levels and a moderate decrease of blood pressure associated with EVO-dark chocolate consumption, whereas apple-dark chocolate decreased triglyceride levels, although not significantly. Interestingly, EVO-dark chocolate consumption induced a significant increase of circulating EPC levels compared to apples-dark chocolate consumption (174±99 vs 125±96, P<0.05). NMR data revealed a decrease of 2 metabolites involved in cardiovascular risk, linked with carnitine metabolism and hyppurate. Conclusion(s): Consumption of enriched dark chocolate resulted in modification of metabolism with potential long-term consequences on cardiovascular health within 4 weeks. However, only EVO-dark chocolate consumption results in improvement of endothelial function, associated with the increase of EPC circulating levels, probably due to the additive effect of EVO polyphenols.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11568/873132
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact