On June 19, 1996, an extremely heavy rainstorm hit a restricted area in the Apuan Alps (northwestern Tuscany, Italy). Its max intensity concentrated over an area of about 150 km2 astride the Apuan chain, where 474 mm was recorded in about 12 h (21% of the mean annual precipitation, with an intensity up to 158 mm/h). The storm caused floods and hundreds of landslides and debris flows, which produced huge damage (hundreds of millions of Euros), partially destroyed villages and killed 14 people. This paper reports the results obtained from a detailed field survey and aerial view interpretation. In the most severely involved area, 647 main landslides were investigated, mapped and related to the geologic, geomorphic and vegetational factors of the source areas. This was in order to define the influence of these factors and contribute to an evaluation of the landslide hazard in the study area. An assessment was also made of the total area and volume of material mobilised by landsliding. The study area, about 46 km2 wide, includes three typically mountainous basins, characterised by narrow, deep cut valleys and steep slopes, where many rock types outcrop. Most of the landslides were shallow and linear, referable to complex, earth and debris translational slide, which quickly developed into flow (soil slip–debris flow). Usually, they involved colluvium and started in hollows underlain by metamorphic rock (metasandstone and phyllite), often dipping downslope. Therefore, bedrock lithology and impermeability appeared to be important factors in the localisation of the landslide phenomena. The investigation of the geomorphic and land use features in the source areas also frequently highlighted a rectilinear profile of the slope, a high slope gradient (31–45j) and dense chestnut wood cover. In the area, about 985,000 m2 (2.1% of 46 km2) was affected by landsliding and about 700,000 m2 of this area was covered by chestnut forest. The landslides removed about 7000 trees. The volume of mobilised material was about 1,360,000 m3; about 220,000 m3 remained on the slopes, while the rest poured into the streams. In addition, about 945,000 m3 was mobilised by the torrential erosion in the riverbeds.
|Autori:||D'AMATO AVANZI, GIACOMO ALFREDO; Giannecchini, Roberto; Puccinelli, Alberto|
|Titolo:||The influence of the geological and geomorphological settings on the shallow landslides. A typical example in a temperate climate environment: the June 19th, 1996 catastrophe in the north-western Tuscany (Italy)|
|Anno del prodotto:||2004|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|